Adaptive Sliding Mode Traffic Flow Control using a Deadzoned Parameter Adaptation Law for Ramp Metering and Speed Regulation

  • Jin, Xin (Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Ajou University) ;
  • Eom, Myunghwan (Doosan Corporation Mottrol) ;
  • Chwa, Dongkyoung (Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Ajou University)
  • Received : 2016.07.18
  • Accepted : 2017.05.01
  • Published : 2017.09.01


In this paper, a novel traffic flow control method based-on ramp metering and speed regulation using an adaptive sliding mode control (ASMC) method along with a deadzoned parameter adaptation law is proposed at a stochastic macroscopic level traffic environment, where the influence of the density and speed disturbances is accounted for in the traffic dynamic equations. The goal of this paper is to design a local traffic flow controller using both ramp metering and speed regulation based on ASMC, in order to achieve the desired density and speed for the maintenance of the maximum mainline throughput against disturbances in practice. The proposed method is advantageous in that it can improve the traffic flow performance compared to the traditional methods using only ramp metering, even in the presence of ramp storage limitation and disturbances. Moreover, a prior knowledge of disturbance magnitude is not required in the process of designing the controller unlike the conventional sliding mode controller. A stability analysis is presented to show that the traffic system under the proposed traffic flow control method is guaranteed to be uniformly bounded and its ultimate bound can be adjusted to be sufficiently small in terms of deadzone. The validity of the proposed method is demonstrated under different traffic situations (i.e., different initial traffic status), in the sense that the proposed control method is capable of stabilizing traffic flow better than the previously well-known Asservissement Lineaire d'Entree Autoroutiere (ALINEA) strategy and also feedback linearization control (FLC) method.


Traffic flow control;Ramp metering;Speed regulation;Adaptive sliding mode control;Deadzoned parameter adaptation;Disturbance


Supported by : National Research Foundation of Korea(NRF)


  1. Afukaar, F. K.: "Speed control in developing countries: issues, challenges and opportunities in reducing road traffic injuries," Injury Control and Safety Promotion, 2003, 10, (1-2), pp. 77-81.
  2. Smaragdis, E., Papageorgiou, M.: "A flow-maximizing adaptive local ramp metering strategy," Transportation Research Part B, 2004, 38 (3), pp. 251-270.
  3. Papageorgiou, M., Kotsialos, A.: "Freeway ramp metering: An overview," IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems, 2002, 3, (4), pp. 271-280.
  4. Papageorgiou, M., Haj-Salem, H., Blosseville, J. M.: "ALINEA: A local feedback control law for on-ramp metering," Transportation Research Record, 1991, 1320, pp. 58-64.
  5. Smaragdis, E., Papageorgiou, M.: "Series of new local ramp metering strategies," Transportation Research Record, 2003, 1856, pp. 74-86.
  6. Kotsialos, A., Papageorgiou, M.: "Nonlinear optimal control applied to coordinated ramp metering," IEEE Transactions on Control Systems Technology, 2004, 12, (6), pp. 920-933.
  7. Papamichail, I., Papageorgiou, M.: "Trafficresponsive linked ramp metering control," IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems, 2008, 9, (1), pp. 111-121.
  8. Zhao, D. B., Bai, X. R., Wang, F. Y., Xu, J., Yu, W. S.: "DHP method for ramp metering of freeway traffic," IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems, 2011, 12, (4), pp. 990-999.
  9. Alessandri, A., Febbraro, A. D., Ferrara, A., Punta, E.,: "Nonlinear optimization for freeway control using variable-speed signaling," IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, 1999, 48, (6), pp. 2042-2052.
  10. Carlson, R. C., Papamichail, I., Papageorgiou, M.,: "Local feedback-based mainstream traffic flow control on motorways using variable speed limits," IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems, 2011, 12, (4), pp. 1261-1276.
  11. Chien, C. C., Zhang, Y., Stotsky, A. Dharmasena, S. R., Ioannou, P.: "Macroscopic roadway traffic controller design," Inst. Transp. Studies, Univ. California, Berkeley, CA, Res. Rep. UCB-ITS-PRR-95-28, 1995.
  12. Chien, C. C., Zhang, Y. P., Ioannou, P. A.: "Traffic density control for automated highway systems," Automatica, 1997, 33, (7), pp. 1273-1286.
  13. Yang, X. H., Chen, S. Y., Wang, W. L.: "Nonlinear integrator backstepping for traffic flow speed control of automated freeway system," WSEAS Transactions on Circuits and Systems, 2011, 10, (1), pp. 17-25.
  14. Milanes, V., Godoy, J., Villagra, J., Perez, J.: "Automated on-ramp merging system for congested traffic situations," IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems, 2011, 12, (2), pp. 500-508.
  15. Perez, J., Seco, F., Milanes, V., Jimenez, A., Diaz, J. C., De Pedro, T.: "An RFID-Based Intelligent Vehicle Speed Controller Using Active Traffic Signals," Sensors. 2010, 10, (6), pp. 5872-5887.
  16. Papamichail, I., Kampitaki, K., Papageorgiou, M., Messmer, A.: "Integrated Ramp Metering and Variable Speed Limit Control of Motorway Traffic Flow," Proceedings of the 17th World Congress, Seoul, Korea, Jul. 2008, pp. 14084-14089.
  17. Hegyi, A., Schutter, B. D., Hellendoorn, J.: "MPCbased optimal coordination of variable speed limits to suppress shock waves in freeway traffic," Proceedings of the American Control Conference, Denver, Col., USA, Jun. 2003, pp. 4083-4088.
  18. Frejo, J. R. D., Camacho, E. F.: "Global versus local MPC algorithms in Freeway traffic control with ramp metering and variable speed limits," IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems, 2012, 13, (4), pp. 1556-1565.
  19. Hou, Z., Xu, J.-X., Zhong, H.: "Freeway traffic control using iterative learning control-based ramp metering and speed signaling," IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, 2007, 56, (2), pp. 466-477.
  20. Zhang, H.-M., Ritchie, S.-G., Jayakrishnan, R.: "Coordinated traffic responsive ramp control via nonlinear state feedback," Transportation Research Part C, 2001, 9, ( 6), pp. 337-352.
  21. Xu, J. X., Zhao, X. J., Srinivasan, D.: "Fuzzy logic controller for freeway ramp metering with particle swarm optimization and PARAMICS simulation," 2010 IEEE International Conference on Fuzzy Systems, Jul. 2010, pp. 1-6.
  22. Xu, J., Yu, W.-S., Wang, F.-Y.: "Ramp metering based on adaptive critic designs," Proceedings of the 2006 IEEE Intelligent Transportation Systems Conference, Toronto, Canada, Sep. 2006, pp. 1531-1536.
  23. Edwards, C. and Spurgeon, S.: "Sliding Mode control: Theory and Applications" (Taylor and Francis, London, 1998).
  24. Mammar, S., Mammar, S., Netto, M.: "Coordinated ramp metering via second order sliding mode control," Proceedings of the 2006 IEEE Intelligent Transporta-tion Systems Conference, Toronto, Canada, Sep. 2006, pp. 261-266.
  25. Iordanova, V., Abouaissa, H., Jolly, D.: "Sliding mode control and flatness based concept for real-time ramp metering," Proceeding of the 17th World Congress, Seoul, Korea, Jul. 2008, pp. 13046-13051.
  26. Abouaissa, H., Dryankova, V., Jolly, D.: "Real-time ramp metering : High-order sliding mode control and differential flatness," International Journal of Automation and Control Engineering, 2013, 2, (4), pp. 151-160.
  27. Khalil, H.-K. : "Nonlinear Systems" (3rd ed. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 2002).
  28. Papageorgiou, M., Blosseville, J.: "Macroscopic modeling of traffic flow on the Boulevard Peripherique in Paris," Transportation Research Part B, 1989, 23B, (1), pp. 29-47.
  29. Kotsialos, A., Papageorgiou, M., Diakaki, C., Pavis, Y., Middelham, F.: "Traffic flow modeling of largescale motorway using the macroscopic modeling tool METANET," IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems, 2002, 3, (4), pp. 282-292.
  30. Choi, J. Y., Chwa, D.: "Adaptive control based on a parametric affine model for tail-controlled missiles," IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic Systems, 2006, 42, (2), pp. 659-669.
  31. Zhong, R. X., Sumalee, A., Pan, T. L., Lam. W. H. K.: "Optimal and robust strategies for freeway traffic management under demand and supply uncertainties: an overview and general theory," Transportmetrica A: Transport Science, 2014, 10, (10). Pp. 849-877.
  32. Papageorgiou, M., Hadj-Salem, H., Middleham, F.: "ALINEA local ramp metering: Summary of the field results," Transportation Research Record, 1997, 1603, pp. 90-98.
  33. Wu, C. H., Ho, J. M., Lee, D. T.: "Travel-time prediction with support vector regression," IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems, 2004, 5, (4), pp. 276-281.