LCL Filter Design Method for Grid-Connected PWM-VSC

  • Majic, Goran (Dept. of Power Engineering, University of Split, FESB) ;
  • Despalatovic, Marin (Dept. of Power Engineering, University of Split, FESB) ;
  • Terzic, Bozo (Dept. of Power Engineering, University of Split, FESB)
  • Received : 2017.01.28
  • Accepted : 2017.06.04
  • Published : 2017.09.01


In recent years, several LCL filter design methods for different converter topologies have been published, many of which use analytical expressions to calculate the ideal converter AC voltage harmonic spectrum. This paper presents the LCL filter design methodology but the focus is on presentation and validation of the non-iterative filter design method for a grid-connected three-phase two-level PWM-VSC. The developed method can be adapted for different converter topologies and PWM algorithms. Furthermore, as a starting point for the design procedure, only the range of PWM carrier frequencies is required instead of an exact value. System nonlinearities, usually omitted from analysis have a significant influence on VSC AC voltage harmonic spectrum. In order to achieve better accuracy of the proposed procedure, the system nonlinear model is incorporated into the method. Optimal filter parameters are determined using the novel cost function based on higher frequency losses of the filter. An example of LCL filter design for a 40 kVA grid-connected PWM-VSC has been presented. Obtained results have been used to construct the corresponding laboratory setup and measurements have been performed to verify the proposed method.


Cost function;Grid-connected voltage source converters;Harmonic analysis;LCL filter;Non-iterative method;Optimization;Space vector pulse width modulation


Supported by : Croatian Science Foundation


  1. M. Kazmierkowski, R. Krishnan, F. Blaabjerg, Control in Power Electronics, Selected Problems, Academic Press, Oxford, 2002.
  2. J. Dannehl, C. Wessels, F.W. Fuchs, "Limitations of Voltage-Oriented PI Current Control of Grid-Connected PWM Rectifiers With LCL Filters", IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 56, no. 2, pp. 380-388, Feb. 2009.
  3. D. G. Holmes, T. A. Lipo, Pulse Width Modulation for Power Converters, Principles and Practice, IEEE Press, Piscataway, NJ, 2003.
  4. G. Majic, M. Despalatovic, K. Verunica, "Influence of Dead Time on Voltage Harmonic Spectrum of Grid-Connected PWM-VSC with LCL Filter", in Proc. of Int. Conf. on Compatibility, Power Electronics and Power Engineering (CPE-POWERENG), pp. 228-233, Bydgoszcz, June/July 2016.
  5. R. J. Kerkman, D. Leggate, D. W. Schlegel, C. Winterhalter, "Effects of Parasitics on the Control of Voltage Source Converters", IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 140-150, March, 2003.
  6. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, IEEE Recommended Practices and Requirements for Harmonic Control in Electrical Power Systems-IEEE Std 519-2014 (Revision of IEEE Std 519-1992), New York, 2014.
  7. International Electrotechnical Commission, Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) Part 3-12: Limits for harmonic currents produced by equipment connected to public low-voltage systems with input current >16 A and ${\leq}$75 A per phase-IEC 61000-3-12 (Edition 2.0 2011-05), Geneva, 2011.
  8. R. Beres, X. Wang, F. Blaabjerg, C.C. Bak, M. Liserre, "A Review of Passive Filters for Grid-Connected Voltage Source Converters", in Proc. of IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conf. and Expo. (APEC), pp. 2208-2215, Fort Worth (TX), March 2014.
  9. M. Lindgren, J. Svensson, "Connecting Fast Switching Voltage-Source Converters to the Grid-Harmonic Distortion and its Reduction", in Proc. of IEEE Power Tech Conf., pp. 191-196, Stockholm, June 1995.
  10. J. Dannehl, F.W. Fuchs, S. Hansen, "PWM Rectifier with LCL-Filter using different Current Control Structures", in Proc. of European Conf. on Power Electronics and Applications(EPE), pp. 1-10, Aalborg, Sep. 2-5. 2007.
  11. M. Liserre, F. Blaabjerg, S. Hansen, "Design and control of an LCL-filter-based three-phase active rectifier", IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl., vol. 41, no. 5, pp. 1281-1291, Sep./Oct. 2005.
  12. K.-J. Lee, N.-J. Park, R.-Y. Kim, D.-H. Ha, D.-S. Hyun, "Design of an LCL Filter employing a Symmetric Geometry and its Control in Gridconnected Inverter Applications", in Proc. of the IEEE Power Electronics Specialists Conf. (PESC), pp. 963-966, Rhodes, June 2008.
  13. K. Jalili, S. Bernet, "Design of LCL Filters of Active-Front-End Two-Level Voltage-Source Converters", IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 56, no. 5, pp. 1674-1689, May 2009.
  14. B.-G. Cho, S.-K. Sul, "Non-iterative LCL Filter Design for Three-Phase Two-Level Voltage-Source Converters", in Proc. of Int. Power Electronics Conf. (IPEC), pp. 2802-2809, Hiroshima, May 2014.
  15. G. Gohil, L. Bede, R. Teodorescu, T. Kerekes, F. Blaabjerg, "Line Filter Design of Parallel Interleaved VSCs for High-Power Wind Energy Conversion Systems", IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 30, no.12, pp. 6775-6790, Dec. 2015.
  16. F. Liu, X. Zha, Y. Zhou, S. Duan, "Design and Research on Parameter of LCL filter in Three-Phase Grid-Connected Inverter", in Proc. of IEEE 6th Int. Power Electronics and Motion Control Conf. (IPEMC), pp. 2174-2177, Wuhan, May 2009.
  17. B. Parikshith, V. John, "Filter Optimization for Grid Interactive Voltage Source Inverters", IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 57, no. 12, pp. 4106-4114, Dec. 2010.
  18. T. Wang, Z. Ye, G. Sinha, X. Yuan, "Output Filter Design for a Grid-interconnected Three-Phase Inverter", in Proc. of IEEE Power Electronics Specialists Conf. (PESC), vol.2, pp.779-784, Acapulco, June 2003.
  19. H. M. Ahn, C.-Y. Oh, W.-Y. Sung, J.-H. Ahn, B. K. Lee, "Analysis and Design of LCL Filter with Passive Damping Circuits for Three-phase Grid-connected Inverters", Journal of Electrical Engineering and Technology, vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 217-224, 2017.
  20. R. Meyer, A. Mertens, "Design of LCL Filters in Consideration of Parameter Variations for Grid-Connected Converters", in Proc. of IEEE Energy Conversion Congress and Expo. (ECCE), pp. 557-564, Raleigh (NC), Sept. 15-20. 2012.
  21. J. San-Sebastian, I. Etxeberria-Otadui, A. Rujas. J. A. Barrena, P. Rodriguez, "Optimized LCL Filter Methodology Applied to MV grid-connected Multimegawatt VSC", in Proc. of IEEE Energy Conversion Congress and Expo. (ECCE), pp. 2506-2512, Raleigh (NC), Sept. 15-20. 2012.
  22. J. Muhlethaler, M. Schweizer, R. Blattmann, J. W. Kolar, A. Ecklebe, "Optimal Design of LCL Harmonic Filters for Three-Phase PFC Rectifiers", IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 28, no. 7, pp. 3114-3125, July 2013.
  23. H. Zheng, Z.-F. Liang, M.-S. Li, K. Li "Optimization of Parameters for LCL Filter of Least Square Method Based Three-phase PWM Converter", Journal of Electrical Engineering and Technology, vol. 10, no. 4, pp. 1626-1634, 2015.
  24. A. A. Rockhill, M. Liserre, R. Teodorecsu, P. Rodriguez, "Grid-Filter Design for a Multimegawatt Medium-Voltage Voltage-Source Inverter", IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 58, no. 4, pp. 1205-1217, April 2011.
  25. E. Kantar, A. M. Hava, "Design of Grid Connected PWM Converters Considering Topology and PWM Methods for Low-Voltage Renewable Energy Applications", in Proc. of Int. Power Electronics Conf. (IPEC), pp. 2034-2041, Hiroshima, May 2014.
  26. A. Reznik, M. G. Simoes, A. Al-Durra, S. M. Muyeen, "LCL Filter Design and Performance Analysis for Grid-Interconnected Systems", IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl., vol. 50, no. 2, pp. 1225-1232, Mar./Apr. 2014.
  27. R. Pena-Alzola, M. Liserre, F. Blaabjerg, M. Ordonez, Y. Yang, "LCL-Filter Design for Robust Active Damping in Grid-Connected Converters", IEEE Trans. Ind. Informat., vol. 10, no. 4, pp. 2192-2203, Nov. 2014.
  28. Q. Liu, L. Peng, Y. Kang, S. Tang, D. Wu, Y. Qi, "A Novel Design and Optimization Method of an LCL Filter for a Shunt Active Power Filter", IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 61, no. 8, pp. 4000-4010, Aug. 2014.
  29. "PLECS User Manual (v3.7)", Plexim GmbH, Zurich, 2015. Available:
  30. "Premium Efficiency Motor Selection and Application Guide, A Handbook for Industry", US Department of Energy, 2014. Available:
  31. M. H. Bierhoff, F. W. Fuchs, "Semiconductor losses in Voltage Source and Current Source IGBT Converters Based on Analytical Derivation", in Proc. of IEEE Annual Power Electronics Specialists Conf. (PESC), vol. 4, pp. 2836-2842, Aachen, June 20-25. 2004.
  32. A. V. den Bossche, V. C. Valchev, Inductors and Transformers for Power Electronics, CRC Press / Taylor Francis Group, Boca Raton, FL, 2005.
  33. J. Muhlethaler, J. Biela, J.W. Kolar, A. Ecklebe, "Improved Core-Loss Calculation for Magnetic Components Employed in Power Electronic Systems, IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 27, no. 2, pp. 964-973, July 2012.
  34. J. Muhlethaler, J. W. Kolar, A. Ecklebe, "Loss Modeling of Inductive Components Employed in Power Electronic Systems", in Proc. of IEEE Int. Conf. on Power Electronics and ECCE Asia (ICPE & ECCE), pp. 945-952, Jeju, May/June 2011.
  35. "Film Capacitors-Power Electronic Capacitors, General purpose applications, ver. 5.0", EPCOS, TDK Group, 2013. Available:
  36. Reactors and ECOsine Passive Harmonic Filter, Schaffner Group, 2016. Available: