Subsection Synchronous Current Harmonic Minimum Pulse Width Modulation for ANPC-5L Inverter

  • Feng, Jiuyi (School of Mechatronic Engineering and Automation, Shanghai University) ;
  • Song, Wenxiang (School of Mechatronic Engineering and Automation, Shanghai University) ;
  • Xu, Yuan (School of Mechatronic Engineering and Automation, Shanghai University) ;
  • Wang, Fei (School of Mechatronic Engineering and Automation, Shanghai University)
  • Received : 2016.11.17
  • Accepted : 2017.05.19
  • Published : 2017.09.01


Medium voltage drive systems driven by high-power multi-level inverters operating at low switching frequency can reduce the switching losses of the power device and increase the output power. Employing subsection synchronous current harmonic minimum pulse width modulation (CHMPWM) technique can maintain the total harmonic distortion of current at a very low level. It can also reduce the losses of the system, improve the system control performance and increase the efficiency of DC-link voltage accordingly. This paper proposes a subsection synchronous CHMPWM approach of active neutral point clamped five-level (ANPC-5L) inverter under low switching frequency operation. The subsection synchronous scheme is obtained by theoretical calculation based on the allowed maximum switching frequency. The genetic algorithm (GA) is adopted to get the high-precision initial values. So the expected switching angles can be achieved with the help of sequential quadratic programming (SQP) algorithm. The selection principle of multiple sets of the switching angles is also presented. Finally, the validity of the theoretical analysis and the superiority of the CHMPWM are verified through both the simulation results and experimental results.


Active neutral point clamped five-level inverter;Current harmonic minimum;Low switching frequency;Genetic algorithm;Sequential quadratic programming


Supported by : National Natural Science Foundation of China


  1. S. Kouro, M. Malinowski, K. Gopakumar, et. al., “Recent advances and industrial applications of multilevel converters,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., Vol. 57, No. 8, pp. 2553-2580, Aug. 2010.
  2. Yin Kai, Ma Mingyao, He Yuanming, et. al., "Research on three-phase hybrid-clamped five-level PWM rectifier," in Proceedings of the CSEE, Vol. 32, No. 12, pp. 59-66, Apr. 2012(in Chinese).
  3. P. Barbosa, P. Steimer, J. Steinke, et. al., "Activeneutral-point-clamped (ANPC) multilevel converter technology," in Proceedings of 2005 European Conference on Power Electronics and Applications, pp. 1-10, Sep. 2005.
  4. F. Kieferndorf, M. Basler, L. A. Serpa, et. al., "A new medium voltage drive system based on ANPC-5L technology," in Proceedings of 2010 IEEE International Conference in Industrial Technology, pp. 643-649, Mar. 2010.
  5. L. G. Franquelo, J. I. Leon, and E. Dominguez, "New trends and topologies for high power industrial applications : The multilevel converters solution," in Proceedings of 2009 International Conference on POWERENG, pp.1-6, Mar. 2009.
  6. J. Holtz and N. Oikonomou, “Fast Dynamic Control of Medium Voltage Drives Operating at Very Low Switching Frequency-An Overview,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., Vol. 55, No. 3, pp. 1005-1013, Mar. 2008.
  7. J. Holtz and N. Oikonomou, “Synchronous Optimal Pulsewidth Modulation and Stator Flux Trajectory Control for Medium-Voltage Drives,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl., Vol. 43, No. 2, pp. 600-608, Mar/Apr. 2007.
  8. F. C. Zach, R. Martinez, S. Keplinger, et. al., “Dynamically Optimal Switching Patterns for PWM Inverter Drives (for Minimization of the Torque and Speed Ripples),” IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl., Vol. IA-21, No. 4, pp. 975-986, Jul. 1985.
  9. H. S. Patel and R. G. Hoft, “Generalized Techniques of Harmonic Elimination and Voltage Control in Thyristor Inverters: Part I-Harmonic Elimination,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl., Vol. IA-9, No. 3, pp. 310-317, May. 1973.
  10. D. Maheswaran, N. Rajasekar, K. Priya and L. Ashok kumar, “Application of Bacterial Foraging Algorithm and Genetic Algorithm for Selective Voltage Harmonic Elimination in PWM Inverter,” Journal of Electrical Engineering & Technology, Vol. 10, No. 3, pp. 944-951, May. 2015.
  11. G. S. Buja and G. B. Indri, “Optimal Pulsewidth Modulation for Feeding AC Motors,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl., Vol. IA-13, No. 1, pp. 38-44, Jan. 1977.
  12. M. G. H. Aghdam, S. H. Fathi and G. B. Gharehpetian, “Harmonic Optimization Techniques in Multi-Level Voltage-Source Inverter with Unequal DC Sources,” Journal of Power Electronics, Vol. 8, No. 2, pp. 171-180, Apr. 2008.
  13. Fu Xiao, Dai Peng, Zhao Bingjie, et. al., "Research on Subsection Synchronization Harmonic Optimum Pulsewidth Modulation for Inverters," in Proceeding of 2010 Asia Pacific Power and Energy Engineering Conference(APPEEC), pp. 1-5, Mar. 2010.
  14. R. Rathore, J. Holtz, and T. Boller, “Generalized Optimal Pulsewidth Modulation of Multilevel Inverters for Low-Switching-Frequency Control of Medium-Voltage High-Power Industrial AC Drives,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., Vol. 60, No. 10, pp. 4215-4224, Oct. 2013.
  15. B. Ozpineci, L. M. Tolbert, and J. N. Chiasson, “Harmonic optimization of multilevel converters using genetic algorithms,” IEEE Power Electronics Letters, Vol. 3, No. 3, pp. 92-95, Sep. 2005
  16. Song Wenxiang, Feng Jiuyi, Jiang Shuhao, et. al., "Current harmonic minimum pulse-width modulation for ANPC-5L inverter," in Proceeding of 17th International Conference on Electrical Machines and Systems(ICEMS), pp. 1425-1429, Oct. 2014.
  17. A. Sayyah, M. Aflaki, and A. R. Rezazade, "Optimal PWM for Minimization of Total Harmonic Current Distortion in High-Power Induction Motors Using Genetic Algorithms," in Proceeding of 2006 International Joint Conference on SICE-ICASE, pp. 5494-5499, Oct. 2006.
  18. Y. Sahali and M. K. Fellah, "Application of the optimal minimization of the THD technique to the multilevel symmetrical inverters and study of its performance in comparison with the selective harmonic elimination technique," International Symposium on Power Electronics, Electrical Drives, Automation and Motion, pp. 39-45, May. 2006.
  19. A. Sayyah, M. Aflaki and A. Rezazade, "Application of optimal PWM of induction motor in synchronous machines at high power ratings," in Proceeding of 2007 IEEE/ASME international conference on Advanced intelligent mechatronics, pp. 1-6, Sept. 2007.
  20. D. G. Holmes and T. A. Lipo, Pulse width modulation for power converters: principles and practice, Vol. 18, John Wiley & Sons, 2003.