A Study on EV Charging Scheme Using Load Control

  • Go, Hyo-Sang (KRRI(Korea Railroad Research Institute)) ;
  • Cho, In-Ho (KRRI(Korea Railroad Research Institute)) ;
  • Kim, Gil-Dong (KRRI(Korea Railroad Research Institute)) ;
  • Kim, Chul-Hwan (College of Information and Communication Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University)
  • Received : 2016.10.05
  • Accepted : 2017.06.14
  • Published : 2017.09.01


It is necessary to charge electric vehicles in order to drive them. Thus, it is essential to have electric vehicle charging facilities in place. In the case of a household battery charger, the power similar to that consumed by a household with a basic contract power of 3kW is consumed. In addition, many consumers who own an electric vehicle will charge their vehicles at the same time. The simultaneous charging of electric vehicles will cause the load to increase, which then will lead to the imbalance of supply and demand in the distribution system. Thus, a smart charging scheme for electric vehicles is an essential element. In this paper, simulated conditions were set up using real data relating to Korea in order to design a smart charging technique suitable for the actual situation. The simulated conditions were used to present a smart charging technique for electric vehicles that disperses electric vehicles being charged simultaneously. The EVs and Smart Charging Technique are modeled using the Electro Magnetic Transients Program (EMTP).


Smart charging technique;Electro Magnetic Transients Program (EMTP);Power quality;Load control;Electric vehicle;Power demand and supply


Supported by : National Research Foundation of Korea(NRF)


  1. Taw-Woo Kim, Sung-Jin Park, "Battery Thermal Management System in EV," The Magazine of the Society of Air-Conditioning and Refrigerating Engineers of Korea, pp. 28-38, November 2015.
  2. Korea Smart Institute, "A Research of Charging Infrastructure for Electric Vehicle," Sep. 2010.
  3. Hyo-Sang Go, Jun-Hyeok Kim, Eung-Sang Kim, Chul-Hwan Kim, "A Study on the Voltage Sag During the EVs Charging Considering Domestic Data," The Korean Institute of Illuminating and electrical Installation Engineers, vol. 29, no.1, pp. 37-46, January 2015.
  4. Jonathan Donadee and Marija Ili?, "Stochastic Co-Optimization of Charging and Frequency Regulation by Electric Vehicles," North American Power Symposium (NAPS), 2012.
  5. Sekyung Han, Soohee Han, "Economic Feasibility of V2G Frequency Regulation in Consideration of Battery Wear," Energies, vol. 6, pp. 748-765, 2013.
  6. Yuki Mitsukuri, Ryoichi Haraa, Hiroyuki Kitaa, Eiji Kamiyab, Shoji Takib and Eiji Kogureb, "Study on Voltage Regulation in a Distribution System Using Electric Vehicles? Optimal Real and Reactive Power Dispatch by Centralized Control," Journal of International Council on Electrical Engineering, vol. 3, no. 2, pp.134-140, 2013.
  7. A. Boulanger, A. Chu, S. Maxx, D. Waltz, "Vehicle electrification: Status and issues," Proceedings of IEEE, vol. 99, no. 6, pp.1116-1138, Jun. 2011.
  8. O. Sundstorm, C. Binding, "Flexible charging optimization for electric vehicles considering distribution grid constraints," IEEE Transaction on Smart Grid, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 26-37, Mar. 2012.
  9. K. Clement-Nyns, E, Haesen, and J. Driesen, "The impact of charging plug-in hybrid electric vehicles on residential distribution grid," IEEE Transaction on Power System, vol. 25 no. 1, pp. 371-380, Feb. 2010.
  10. L. Gan, U. Topcu, S. Low, "Optimal decentralized protocol for electric vehicle charging," IEEE Transaction on Power System, vol. 28, no. 2, pp. 940-951, May 2013.
  11. Jun-Hyeok Kim, Hyo-Sang Go, Doo-Ung Kim, Hun-Chul Seo, Chul-Hwan Kim, Eung-Sang Kim, "Modeling of Battery for Electric Vehicle Using EMTP/MODELS," IEEE Vehicle Power and Propulsion Conference, October 2012.
  12. Hyo-Sang Go, Jun-Hyeok Kim, Chul-Hwan Kim, Eung-Sang Kim, Seul-Ki Kim, "Smart Charging Technique of Electric Vehicle Considering The Load," Proceedings of KIIEE Annual Conference, November 2014.
  13. Hyo-Sang Go, Doo-Ung Kim, Jun-Hyeok Kim, Soon-Jeong Lee, Seul-Ki Kim, Eung-Sang Kim, Chul-Hwan Kim, "A Study on Voltage Sag Considering Real-Time Traffic Volume of Electric Vehicles in South Korea," Journal of Electrical Engineering & Technology, vol. 10, no. 4, pp. 1492-1501, March 2015.
  14. MLIT(Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport), "Statistical yearbook of MLIT," DEC. 2013.
  15. Kristien Clement-Nyns, Edwin Haesen, Johan Driesen, "The Impact of Charging Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles on a Residential Distribution Grid," IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, vol. 25, no. 1, pp. 371-380, January 2010.
  16. Sara Deilami, Amir S. Masoum, Paul S. Moses, Mohammad A. S. Masoum,"Real-Time Coordination of Plug-In Electric Vehicle Charging in Smart Grids to Minimize Power Losses and Improve Voltage Profile," IEEE Transactions on SMART GRID, vol. 2, no. 3, pp. 456-467, September 2011.
  17. KejunQian, Chengke Zhou, Malcolm Allan, Yue Yuan, "Modeling of Load Demand Due to EV Battery Charging in Distribution Systems," IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, vol. 26, no. 2, pp. 802-810, May 2011.
  18. Yijia Cao, Shengwei Tang, Canbing Li, Peng Zhang, Yi Tan, Zhikun Zhang, Junxiong Li, "An Optimized EV Charging Model Considering TOU Price and SOC Curve," IEEE Transactions on SMART GRID, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 388-393, March 2012.
  19. Luis PieltainFernandez, Tomas Gomez San Roman, Rafael Cossent, Carlos Mateo Domingo, Pablo Frias, "Assessment of the Impact of Plug-in Electric Vehicles on Distribution Networks," IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, vol. 26, no. 1, pp. 206-213, Feb. 2011.
  20. Jian-chang Lu, Xingping Zhang, Wei Sun, "A Realtime Adaptive Forecasting Algorithm for Electric Power Load," Transmission and Distribution Conference and Exhibition IEEE/PES, pp. 1-5, 2005.
  21. A. Sfetsos, "Short-term load forecasting with a hybrid clustering algorithm," Generation, Transmission and Distribution IEE Proceedings, vol. 150, no. 3, pp. 257-262, March 2003.
  22. V. H. Hinojosa, A. Hoese, "Short-Term Load Forecasting Using Fuzzy Inductive Reasoning and Evolutionary Algorithms," IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, vol. 25, no. 1, pp. 565-574, Feb. 2010.
  23. Yang Wang, Qing Xia, Chongqing Kang, "Secondary Forecasting Based on Deviation Analysis for Short-Term Load Forecasting," IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, vol. 26, no. 2, pp. 500-507, March 2011.
  24. Dong-Joo Kang, Sun-Joo Park, Soo-Jung Choi, Seong-Jae Han, "A Study on Design of Home Energy Management System to Induce Price Responsive Demand Response to Real Time Pricing of Smart Grid," Journal of KIIEE, vol. 25, no. 11, pp. 39-49, November 2011.
  25. Hee-jung Hong, Soek-man Han, al-ho Kim, "A Study on the Change in Production Costs and Electricity Tariffs with the Introduction of Renewable Portfolio Standard," Journal of KIEE, vol. 58, no. 4, pp. 708-717, April 2009.
  26. Korea Electric Power Corporation(KEPCO), ""
  27. Keon-Woo Park, Hun-Chul Seo, Chul-Hwan Kim, Chang-soo Jung, Yeon-Pyo Yoo, Yong-Hoon Lim, "Analysis of the Neutral Current for Two-Step-Type Poles in Distribution Lines," IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, vol. 24, no. 3, pp. 1483-1489, July 2009.
  28. Go, Hyo-Sang, Kim, Gil-Dong, KIM, Jae-Won, RYU, Joon-Hyoung, Chul-Hwan Kim, "New Prediction of the Number of Charging Electric Vehicles Using Transformation Matrix and Monte-Carlo Method," Journal of Electrical Engineering & Technology, vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 451-458, January 2017.