DOI QR코드

DOI QR Code

The Anxiety, Diabetes-Related Distress and Posttraumatic Growth of Parents Who Have Child with Type 1 Diabetes

1형 당뇨병 자녀를 둔 부모의 불안, 당뇨관련 스트레스 및 외상 후 성장

  • 김미영 (을지대학교 간호대학) ;
  • 강현주 (강원대학교 의과대학 간호학과)
  • Received : 2017.05.08
  • Accepted : 2017.07.07
  • Published : 2017.07.31

Abstract

The purpose of this study was to examine the anxiety, levels of diabetes-related distress, and post-traumatic growth of parents who have children with type 1 diabetes and determine the correlation between the differences and variables based on the general characteristics and disease-related characteristics. This is a descriptive survey research and data collection was conducted from January 4th-29th of 2016 with an online survey in an internet community for type 1 diabetes. Seventy seven individuals were included in the final analysis. Statistical analysis was carried out with a t-test, Mann-Whitney U test, Kruskal-Wallis test, and Pearson correlation coefficient. The study results showed that posttraumatic growth was significantly high (p<.05) under parents with a religion, and that parental anxiety and stress were high with children under 6 years of age (p<.05), with cases of hypoglycemia (p<.05), and with high levels of glycated hemoglobin (p<.05). Anxiety and stress had a positive correlation (r=.684, p<.001), and anxiety and stress exhibited a negative correlation with posttraumatic growth (r=-.401, p<.001; r=-.327, p<.05). This suggests that posttraumatic growth can reduce the negative emotions sufficiently, and that a mediating mechanism is needed that promotes posttraumatic growth while decreasing the level of anxiety and stress.

Keywords

Anxiety;Distress;Parents;Posttraumatic Growth;Child with Type 1 Diabetes

Acknowledgement

Supported by : 을지대학교

References

  1. American Diabetes Association, "Standards of medical care for patients with diabetes mellitus", Puerto Rico Health Sciences Journal, vol. 20, no. 2, pp. 175-188, 2001.
  2. M. H. Jeong, "Characteristics of Korean Type 1 Diabetes", Korean Society of Pediatric Endocrinology, vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 127-131, 2005.
  3. C. H. Shin, "Epidemiologic characteristics of type 1 diabetes in children aged 14 years or under in Korea, 1985-2000", Korean Journal of Pediatrics, vol. 51, no. 6, pp. 569-575, 2008. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3345/kjp.2008.51.6.569 https://doi.org/10.3345/kjp.2008.51.6.569
  4. R. P. Hoffman, "Adolescent adherence in type 1 diabetes", Comprehensive therapy, vol. 28 no. 2, pp. 128-133, 2002. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s12019-002-0050-8 https://doi.org/10.1007/s12019-002-0050-8
  5. Y. H. Yang, "The relationship with caregiving context and caregiving stress and social support for wives caregivers of chronic ill patients", Journal of Korean Academy of Adult Nursing, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 85-105, 1995.
  6. J.S. Kim, M.H. Kim, "A study on family functioning and anxiety in family caregiver system of chronically ill patients", J Korean Acad Adult Nurs, vol. 10, pp. 289-301, 1998.
  7. Lloyd, Cathy E., et al., "Association between stress and glycemic control in adults with type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes", Diabetes Care, vol. 22, no. 8, pp. 1278-1283, 1999. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2337/diacare.22.8.1278 https://doi.org/10.2337/diacare.22.8.1278
  8. Polatinsky, Stefan, Yvette Esprey, "An assessment of gender differences in the perception of benefit resulting from the loss of a child", Journal of traumatic stress, vol. 13. no. 4, pp. 709-718, 2000. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/a:1007870419116 https://doi.org/10.1023/a:1007870419116
  9. R. G. Trdeschi, L. G. Calhoun, "The Posttraumatic Growth Inventory: Measuring the positive legacy of trauma", Journal of Traumatic Stress, vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 455-471, 1996. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jts.2490090305 https://doi.org/10.1002/jts.2490090305
  10. R.G. Trdeschi, L.G. Calhoun, "Handbook of posttraumatic growth: research and practice, Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers, 2006.
  11. J. S. Jun, K. H. Shin, W. S. Gim, J. H. Kwon, "The Influence of Diabetes Stress on Depression: The Moderating Effects of Individual Variables," The Korean Journal Of Health Psychology, vol. 12, no. 4, pp. 851-868, 2007. DOI: https://doi.org/10.17315/kjhp.2007.12.4.011 https://doi.org/10.17315/kjhp.2007.12.4.011
  12. T.Y. Kwon. A study of psychosocial adjustment of insulin dependent diabetes mellitus adolenscents, The Graduate School of Ewha Womans University, 2003.
  13. Faul, F., Erdfelder, E., Buchner, A., Lang, A. G., "Statistical power analyses using G*Power 3.1: Tests for correlation and regression analyses", Behavior Research Methods, vol. 41, pp. 1149-1160, 2009. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3758/brm.41.4.1149 https://doi.org/10.3758/brm.41.4.1149
  14. M. Sohn, E. Y. Kim, J. E. Lee, K. H. Kim, "Exploring Positive Psychology of Children with Type 1 Diabetes Focusing on Subjective Happiness and Satisfaction with Life", Child Health Nursing Research, vol. 21, no. 2, pp. 83-90, 2015. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4094/chnr.2015.21.2.83 https://doi.org/10.4094/chnr.2015.21.2.83
  15. C. D. Spielberger, R. L. Gorsuch, R. E. Lusche STAI Manua, Palo Alto, California : Consulting Psychologists Press, 1970.
  16. Mairtin S. McDermott, Theresa M. Marteau, Gareth J. Hollands, Matthew Hankins, Paul Aveyard, "Change in anxiety following successful and unsuccessful attempts at smoking cessation: cohort study", The British Journal of Psychiatry vol. 202, pp. 62-67, 2013. DOI: http://doi.org/10.1192/bjp.bp.112.114389 https://doi.org/10.1192/bjp.bp.112.114389
  17. H. S. Park, Development and application of Korean diabetes stress questionnaire, Gachon University of Medicine and Science, School of Medicine, 2011.
  18. W. H. Polonsky, B. J. Anderson, P.A. Lohrer, G. Welch, A. M. Jacobson, J. E. Aponte, C. E. Schwartz, "Assessment of diabetes-related distress", Diabetes Care, vol. 18, pp. 754-760, 1995. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2337/diacare.18.6.754 https://doi.org/10.2337/diacare.18.6.754
  19. S.H. Song, H.S. Lee, J.H. Park, K.H. Kim,. "Validity and reliability of the Korean version of the Posttraumatic Growth Inventory", Korean Journal of Health Psychology, vol. 14, pp. 193-214, 2009. DOI: https://doi.org/10.17315/kjhp.2009.14.1.012 https://doi.org/10.17315/kjhp.2009.14.1.012
  20. M. E. Hilliard, M. Monaghan, F. R. Cogen, R. Streisand, "Parent stress and child behaviour among young children with type 1 diabetes", Child Care Health Dev, vol. 37, no. 2, pp. 224-232, 2010. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2214.2010.01162.x https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2214.2010.01162.x
  21. J. M. Butler, M. Skinner, D. Gelfand, C. A. Berg, D. J. Wiebe, "Maternal Parenting style and adjustment in adolescents with type 1 diabetes" Journal of Pediatric Psychology, vol. 32, no. 10, pp. 1227-1237, 2007. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/jpepsy/jsm065 https://doi.org/10.1093/jpepsy/jsm065
  22. E. J. Kim, Relationship between perceived social support and family functioning in families with chronically ill children. The Graduate School of Ewha Womans University, 1992.
  23. Y. H. Kwan, A Comparative Study on Stress and Coping Behavior of Fathers Who Have Chronically Ill Children and Fathers with Well Children, Sookmyoung Woman's University, 2002.
  24. Sato, E. "Socio-psychological problem of patients with late adolescent on set type1 diabetes-analysis by qualitative research", Nagoya journal of medical science, vol. 66, no. 1-2, pp. 21-29. 2003.
  25. D. H. Kim, "Effective Management of Chronic Somatic Diseases in Children and Adolescents", Journal of nursing query, vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 9-24, 1997.
  26. I. Hungerbuehler, M. E. Vollrath, M. A. Landolt, "Posttraumatic growth in mothers and fathers of children with severe illnesses", Journal of Health Psychology, vol. 16, no. 8, pp. 1259-1267, 2011. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1359105311405872 https://doi.org/10.1177/1359105311405872
  27. H. J. Kim, J. H. Kwon, J. N. Kim, R. Lee, K. S. Lee, "Posttraumatic Growth and Related Factors in Breast Cancer Survivors", Korean journal of health psychology, vol. 13, no. 3, pp. 781-799, 2008. DOI: https://doi.org/10.17315/kjhp.2008.13.3.013 https://doi.org/10.17315/kjhp.2008.13.3.013
  28. M.J. Cordova, L.L. Cunningham, C.R. Carlson, M.A. Andrykowski, M. A. "Posttraumatic growth following breast cancer: a controlled comparison study." Health Psychology, vol. 20, no. 3, pp. 176-185. 2001. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1037/0278-6133.20.3.176 https://doi.org/10.1037/0278-6133.20.3.176
  29. Vrijmoet-Wiersma, C. M. Jantien, et al., "Assessment of parental psychological stress in pediatric cancer: A review", Journal of Pediatric Psychology, vol. 33, no. 7, pp. 694-706, 2008. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/jpepsy/jsn007 https://doi.org/10.1093/jpepsy/jsn007
  30. Devlieger, Patrick J., and Gary L. Albrecht. "Your experience is not my experience: the concept and experience of disability on Chicago's near west side", Journal of Disability Policy Studies, vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 51-60, 2000. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/104420730001100115 https://doi.org/10.1177/104420730001100115
  31. I. S. Park, S. J. Kim, K. A. Kang, T. H. Kim, "Analysis of fatigue perceived by the hospitalized children's mother", J Korean Acad Child Health Nurs, vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 80-88, 2004.
  32. Y. I. Lee, "Parents of a child admitted to a pediatric intensive care unit stress level and coping type", Korea Nursing Science Society Fall Conference, vol. 10, pp. 85, 2008.
  33. P. A. Linley, S. Joseph, "Positive change following trauma and adversity: A review", Journal of Traumatic Stress, vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 11-21. 2004. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1023/B:JOTS.0000014671.27856.7e https://doi.org/10.1023/B:JOTS.0000014671.27856.7e
  34. R. J. Fazio, L. M. Fazio. "Growth through loss: Promoting healing and growth in the face of trauma, crisis and loss", Journal of Loss and Trauma, vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 221-252. 2005. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15325020590928207 https://doi.org/10.1080/15325020590928207
  35. Bonner, Melanie J., et al., "Brief report: Psychosocial functioning of fathers as primary caregivers of pediatric oncology patients", Journal of Pediatric Psychology, vol. 32, no. 7, pp. 851-856, 2007. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/jpepsy/jsm011 https://doi.org/10.1093/jpepsy/jsm011
  36. Y. K. Cho, "The change of social structure and fathering in South Korea", Korean Journal of Converging Humanities. vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 83-112, 2014. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.14729/converging.k.2014.2.1.83 https://doi.org/10.14729/converging.k.2014.2.1.83
  37. B. E. Lee, et al. "Clinical Evaluation of Hypoglycemic Symptoms Reported by Children with Insulin-dependent Diabetes Mellitus and by Their Parents", Korean Journal of Pediatrics. vol. 44, no. 4, pp. 450-455, 2001.
  38. W. O. Kim, H. S. Kang, K. J. Cho, Y. A. Song, E. S. Ji, " Comparative Study on Parenting Stress, Guilt, Parenting Attitude, and Parenting Satisfaction Between Mothers with a Hemophilic Child and a Healthy Child", Korean journal of women health nursing, vol. 14, no. 4, pp. 270-277, 2008. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4069/kjwhn.2008.14.4.270 https://doi.org/10.4069/kjwhn.2008.14.4.270
  39. Wild, Diane, et al. "A critical review of the literature on fear of hypoglycemia in diabetes: Implications for diabetes management and patient education." Patient education and counseling, vol. 68. no. 1, pp. 10-15, 2007. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pec.2007.05.003 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pec.2007.05.003
  40. American Diabetes Association, "Standards of medical care in diabetes", Diabetes Care, vol. 36, pp. s11-s66. 2013. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2337/dc13-S011 https://doi.org/10.2337/dc13-S011
  41. International Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Diabetes. Global IDF/ISPAD guideline for diabetes in childhood and adolescence. 2011. Retrieved May 1, 2016 from http://www.idf.org/sites/default/files/Diabetesin-Childhood-and-Adolescence-Guidelines.pdf
  42. C. I. Hong, Pediatrics, Korean Textbooks Corporation, Seoul, 2008.
  43. J. Y. Kim, D. H. Ahn, B. J. Koh, Y. K. Lee, H. K. Lee, H. S. Hwang, " Parenting Stress and Support System in Parents of Child Neuropsychiatric Outpatients", Journal Of The Korean Neuropsychiatric Association, vol. 41, no. 6, pp. 1130-1141, 2002.
  44. Davis, Christopher G., Susan Nolen-Hoeksema, and Judith Larson. "Making sense of loss and benefiting from the experience: two construals of meaning." Journal of personality and social psychology, vol. 75. no. 2, pp. 561. 1998. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.75.2.561 https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.75.2.561