DOI QR코드

DOI QR Code

Evaluation of non-conventional feeds for ruminants using in situ nylon bag and the mobile bag technique

In situ 나일론백 그리고 모바일백 방법을 이용한 국내 부존사료자원의 반추가축용 사료 가치 평가

  • Baek, Youl-Chang (National Institute of Animal Science, Rural Development Administration) ;
  • Choi, Hyuck (National Institute of Animal Science, Rural Development Administration)
  • 백열창 (농촌진흥청 국립축산과학원) ;
  • 최혁 (농촌진흥청 국립축산과학원)
  • Received : 2017.05.23
  • Accepted : 2017.07.07
  • Published : 2017.07.31

Abstract

This study was conducted to evaluate the chemical composition, digestibility, and energy value of 15 non-conventional feeds produced in South Korea as ruminant feeds. Three Hanwoo steers (body weight, $520{\pm}20.20kg$) fitted with a permanent rumen cannula and duodenal cannula were housed individually in tie-stall barns, followed by a 14-day adaptation period and 3-day experimental period. Chemical composition analysis, in situ nylon bag, and mobile bag technique were used as experiments. As a result of the chemical composition analysis offeeds, crude protein (CP) contentsofmalt meal, perilla meal, soy sauce cake, and soymilk residue were greater than 30%. As a result of the degradability characteristics analysis of feeds using an in situ nylon bag, rumen undegraded protein (RUP) contents of beet pulp, brewer's grain, coffee meal, malt meal, milo bran, perilla meal, ramen residue, and soymilk residue were greater than 50%. Analysis of total digestible nutrient (TDN) values of feeds using an in situ mobile bag showed that TDN values of beet pulp, brewer's grain, makgeolli residue, milo bran, perilla meal, ramen residue, rice bran, soy sauce cake, soybean curd cake, soymilk residue, and wheat bran weregreater than 50%. In summary, these non-conventional feeds have high potential value as good feed resources to replace formulated feeds or roughage. Therefore, the chemical composition, digestibility, and energy value of non-conventional feeds obtained from this study can be used as base data for the manufacture of ruminant total mixed ration (TMR) with improved feed efficiency, reduced feed costs, and reduction of environmental pollution.

Keywords

Crude protein;Food by-products;Rumen undegraded protein;Total digestible nutrient;Total mixed ration

Acknowledgement

Grant : A study to improve the productivity and adaptability of Hanwoo to counter global warming

Supported by : National Institute of Animal Science, Rural Development Administration

References

  1. M. F. Liu, L. A. Goonewardene, D. R. C. Bailey, J. A. Basarab, R. A. Kemp, P. F. Arthur, E. K. Okine, M. Makarechian, A study on the variation of feed efficiency in station tested beef bulls. Can. J. Anim. Sci., 80, pp. 435-441, 2000. Available From: http://www.nrcresearchpress.com/ DOI: https://doi.org/10.4141/A99-030 https://doi.org/10.4141/A99-030
  2. J. Lawrence, J. Mintert, J. D. Anderson, D. P. Anderson, Feed Grains and Livestock: Impacts on Meat Supplies and Prices. Choices Magazine 2nd quarter., 23, pp. 11-15, 2008. Available From: http://lib.dr.iastate.edu/econ_las_pubs/482/
  3. D. P. Anderson, J. D. Anderson, Food Price Inflation in Livestock Product Markets: From the Live Animal to Retail Prices. Paper presented at the International Agricultural Trade Research Consortium. June 22-23, Seattle, Washington DC, USA, 2009. Available From: http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.571.1060&rep=rep1&type=pdf
  4. K. Ishida, S. Yani, M. Kitagawa, K. Oishi, H. Hirooka, H. Kumagai, Effects of adding food by‐products mainly including noodle waste to total mixed ration silage on fermentation quality, feed intake, digestibility, nitrogen utilization and ruminal fermentation in wethers. Anim. Sci. J., 83, pp. 735-742, 2012. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1740-0929.2012.01016.x https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1740-0929.2012.01016.x
  5. S. Tamminga, Nutrition management of dairy cows as a contribution to pollution control. J. Dairy Sci., 75, pp. 345-357, 1992. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(92)77770-4 https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(92)77770-4
  6. J. S. Van Dyk, R. Gama, D. Morrison, S. Swart, B. I. Pletschke, Food processing waste: Problems, current management and prospects for utilisation of the lignocellulose component through enzyme synergistic degradation. Renew. Sust. Energ. Rev., 26, pp. 521-531, 2013. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2013.06.016 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2013.06.016
  7. D. San Martin, S. Ramos, J. Zufía, Valorisation of food waste to produce new raw materials for animal feed. Food Chem., 198, pp. 68-74, 2016. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2015.11.035 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2015.11.035
  8. J. K. Park, C. H. Kim, Nutritional Evaluation of Imported Organic Feeds and Locally Produced Agricultural By-products for Organic Ruminant Farming. Korean J. Org. Agric., 19, pp. 513-528, 2011.
  9. M. L. Westendorf, Food waste as animal feed: An introduction, Food Waste to Animal Feed. Iowa State University Press, Ames, Iowa, USA, 2000. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/9780470290217.ch1 https://doi.org/10.1002/9780470290217.ch1
  10. National Research Council. Nutrient Requirements of Dairy Cattle. 7th rev. ed. Natl. Acad. Sci., Washington DC, USA, 2001. Available From: https://www.nap.edu/catalog/9825/nutrient-requirementsof- dairy-cattle-seventh-revised-edition-2001
  11. National Institute of Animal Science. Standard Tables of Feed Composition in Korea. Second revision. RDA, Suwon, Korea, 2012.
  12. Y. K. Oh, W. M. Lee, C. W. Choi, K. H. Kim, S. K. Hong, S. C. Lee, Y. J. Seol, W. S. Kwak, N. J. Choi, Effects of spent mushroom substrates supplementation on rumen fermentation and blood metabolites in Hanwoo steers. Asian Austral. J. Anim. Sci., 23, pp. 1608-1613, 2010. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5713/ajas.2010.10200 https://doi.org/10.5713/ajas.2010.10200
  13. J. K. Park, D. H. Lim, S. B. Kim, K. S. Ki, H. J Lee, E. G. Kwon, W. M. Cho, C. H. Kim, Effects of Partial Replacement of Corn Grain and Soybean Meal with Agricultural By-Product Feeds on In Vitro Rumen Fermentation Characteristics and Optimum Levels of Mixing Ratio. J. Anim. Sci. & Technol (Kor)., 53, pp. 441-450, 2011. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5187/JAST.2011.53.5.441 https://doi.org/10.5187/JAST.2011.53.5.441
  14. S. S. Chang, H. J. Kwon, S. M. Lee, Y. M. Cho, K. Y. Chung, N. J. Choi, S. S. Lee, Effects of brewers grain, soybean curd and rice straw as an ingredient of TMR on growth performance, serum parameters and carcass characteristics of Hanwoo steers. J. Anim. Sci. & Technol (Kor)., 55, pp. 51-59, 2013. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5187/JAST.2013.55.1.51 https://doi.org/10.5187/JAST.2013.55.1.51
  15. I. K. Han, H. D. Kim, B. O. Kwack, Y. G. Ko, D. K. Kan, H. S. Jeon, S. S. Lee, J. K. Ha, H. T. Shin, J. H. Park, Studies for development of foreign non-conventional feed resources 1. proximate analysis amino acids composition of foreign non-conventional feed resources. Kor. J. Anim. Nutr. Feed., 22, pp. 283-292, 1998.
  16. E. Haile, F. K. Njonge, G. Asgedom, M. Gicheha, Chemical Composition and Nutritive Value of Agro-Industrial By-Products in Ruminant Nutrition. Open J. Anim. Sci., 7, pp. 8-18, 2017. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/ojas.2017.71002 https://doi.org/10.4236/ojas.2017.71002
  17. AOAC, "Official Methods of Analysis. 17th Ed", Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Washington DC, USA, 2000.
  18. E. R. Orskov, I. McDonald, The estimation of protein degradability in the rumen from incubation measurement weighted according to rate of passage. J. Agric. Sci., 92, pp. 499-503, 1979. Available From: https://www.cambridge.org/core/ services/aop-cambridge-core/content/view/ S0021859600063048 https://doi.org/10.1017/S0021859600063048
  19. W. M. Van Straalen, S. Tamminga, Protein degradation of ruminant diets. In: Feedstuff Evalauation (J. Wisemen/D.J.A. Cole, eds). Butterworth, London, UK, 1990.
  20. G. De Boer, J. J. Murphy, J. J. Kennelly, Mobile nylon bag for estimating intestinal availability of rumen undegradable protein. J. Dairy Sci., 70, pp. 977-982. 1987. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(87)80102-9 https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(87)80102-9
  21. J. J. McKinnon, J. A. Olubobokun, A. Mustafa, R. D. H. Cohen, D. A. Christensen, Influence of dry heat treatment of canola meal on site and extent of nutrient disappearance in ruminants. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol., 56, pp. 243-252. 1995. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/0377-8401(95)00828-4 https://doi.org/10.1016/0377-8401(95)00828-4
  22. T. Varvikko, A. Vanhatalo, Use of a combined synthetic fibre bag method to estimate the true total tract digestion of organic matter and nitrogen of hay and grass silage in cows. Arch. Anim. Nutr., 43, pp. 53-61, 1993. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/17450399309386023 https://doi.org/10.1080/17450399309386023
  23. B. Maghsoud, T. Akbar, J. Hossein, M. G. Ali, Evaluation of some by-products using in situ and in vitro gas production techniques. American J. Animal & Vet. Sci., 3, pp. 7-12, 2008. Available From: http://docsdrive.com/pdfs/sciencepublications/ajavsp/2008 /7-12.pdf https://doi.org/10.3844/ajavsp.2008.7.12
  24. K. Oishi, H. Kumagai, H. Hirooka, Application of the modified feed formulation to optimize economic and environmental criteria in beef cattle fattening systems with food by-products. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol., 165, pp. 38-50, 2011. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2011.02.015 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2011.02.015
  25. J. S. Bae, Y. I. Kim, S. H. Jung, Y. G. Oh, W. S. Kwak, Evaluation on feed-nutritional value of spent mushroom (Pleurotus osteratus, Pleurotus eryngii, Flammulina velutupes) substrates as a roughage source for ruminants. J. Anim. Sci. & Technol (Kor)., 48, pp. 237-246. 2006. https://doi.org/10.5187/JAST.2006.48.2.237
  26. W. S. Kwak, Y. I. Kim, J. S. Seok, Y. K. Oh, S. M. Lee, Molasses and microbial inoculants improve fermentability and silage quality of cotton waste-based spent mushroom substrate. Bioresour. Technol., 100, pp. 1471-1473, 2009. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2008.07.066 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2008.07.066
  27. Y. I. Kim, J. M. Park, Y. H. Lee, M. Lee, D. Y. Choi, W. S. Kwak, Effect of by-product feed-based silage feeding on the performance, blood metabolites, and carcass characteristics of Hanwoo steers (a field study). Asian Austral. J. Anim. Sci., 28, pp. 180-187, 2015. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5713/ajas.14.0443 https://doi.org/10.5713/ajas.14.0443
  28. D. C. Church, Ruminant animal: digestive physiology and nutrition. Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, USA, 1993.
  29. W. M. Van Straalen, J. J. Odinga, W. Mostert, Digestion of feed amino acids in the rumen and small intestine of dairy cows measured with nylon-bag techniques. Br. J. Nutr., 77, pp. 83-97, 1997. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/S0007114500002907 https://doi.org/10.1017/S0007114500002907
  30. J. H. Clark, M. R. Murphy, B. A. Crooker, Supplying the protein needs of dairy cattle from by-product feeds. J. Dairy Sci., 70, pp. 1092-1109 1987. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(87)80116-9 https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(87)80116-9
  31. T. Hvelplund, Digestibility of rumen microbial protein and undegraded dietary protein estimated in the small intestine of sheep and by in sacco procedure. Acta Agri. Scand. Suppl., 25, pp. 132-144, 1985.
  32. F. P. O'Mara, J. J. Murphy, M. Rath, The amino acid composition of protein feedstuffs before and after ruminal incubation and after subsequent passage through the intestines of dairy cows. J. Anim. Sci., 75, pp. 1941-1949, 1997. Available From: http://biodieselfeeds.cfans.umn.edu/sites/biodieselfeeds.cfans.umn.edu/files/cfansasset416527.pdf https://doi.org/10.2527/1997.7571941x