E-voting Implementation in Egypt

  • Published : 2017.06.30


Manual elections processes in Egypt have several negative effects; that mainly leads to political corruption due to the lack of transparency. These issues negatively influence citizen's participation in the political life; while electronic voting systems aim to increase efficiency, transparency, and reduce the cost comparing to the manual voting. The main research objectives are, finding the successful factors that positively affects E-voting implementation in Egypt, in addition of finding out the reasons that keep Egyptian government far from applying E-voting, and to come up with the road map that Egyptian government has to take into consideration to successfully implement E-voting systems. The findings of the study suggest that there are seven independent variables affecting e-voting implementation which are; leadership, government willingness, legal framework, technical quality, awareness, citizen's trust in government and IT literacy. Technology-Organization-Environment (TOE) theory was used to provide an analytical framework for the study. A quantitative approach (i.e., survey questionnaire) strategy was used to collect data. A random sampling method was used to select the participants for the survey, whom are targeted voters in Egypt and have access to the internet, since the questionnaire was distributed online and the data is analyzed using regression analysis. Practical implications of this study will lead for more citizen participation in the political life due to the transparency that E-voting system will create, in addition to reduce the political corruption.


  1. Achieng, M., &Ruhode, E. (2013).The adoption and challenges of electronic voting technologies within the South African context. arXiv preprint arXiv:1312.2406.
  2. Adeyemo, A. B. (2011). E-government implementation in Nigeria: An assessment of Nigerias global e-gov ranking. Journal of Internet and Information Systems, 2(1), 11-19.
  3. Adida, B. (2008, July). Helios: Web-based Open-Audit Voting. In USENIX Security Symposium (Vol. 17, pp. 335-348).
  4. Alshehri, M., Drew, S., Alhussain, T., &Alghamdi, R. (2012). The Effects of Website Quality on Adoption of E-government Service: AnEmpirical Study Applying UTAUT Model Using SEM. arXiv preprint arXiv:1211.2410.
  5. Alvarez, R. M., Hall, T. E., &Trechsel, A. (2009). Internet voting in comparative perspective: the case of Estoniana.
  6. Amy, D. J. (2000). Behind the ballot box: a citizen's guide to voting systems. Greenwood Publishing Group.
  7. Astrachan, J. H., &Shanker, M. C. (2003). Family businesses' contribution to the US economy: A closer look. Family business review, 16(3), 211-219.
  8. Belanger, F., & Carter, L. (2008). Trust and risk in E-government adoption. The Journal of Strategic Information Systems, 17(2), 165-176.
  9. Bertot, J. C., Jaeger, P. T., & Grimes, J. M. (2010).Using ICTs to create a culture of transparency: Egovernment and social media as openness and anti-corruption tools for societies. Government information quarterly, 27(3), 264-271.
  10. Bhattacharya, D., Gulla, U., & Gupta, M. P. (2012).E-service quality model for Indian government portals: citizens' perspective. Journal of Enterprise Information Management, 25(3), 246-271.
  11. Braun, A., Musse, S. R., de Oliveira, L. P., &Bodmann, B. E. (2003, May).Modeling individual behaviors in crowd simulation. In Computer Animation and Social Agents, 2003. 16th International Conference on (pp. 143-148). IEEE.
  12. Bruns, A. (2012). Reconciling community and commerce? Collaboration between produsage communities and commercial operators. Information, Communication & Society, 15(6), 815-835.
  13. Carter, L., & Belanger, F. (2005). The utilization of e-government services: citizen trust, innovation and acceptance factors*. Information systems journal,15(1), 5-25.
  14. Cetinkaya, O., &Cetinkaya, D. (2007). Verification and validation issues in electronic voting. The Electronic Journal of E-government , 5(2), 117-126.
  15. Chadwick, A., & May, C. (2003). Interaction between States and Citizens in the Age of the Internet:"e-Government" in the United States, Britain, and the European Union. Governance, 16(2), 271-300.
  16. Choi, K. H., Lui, H., Guo, Y., Han, L., & Mandel, J. S. (2006). Lack of HIV testing and awareness of HIV infection among men who have sex with men, Beijing, China. AIDS Education and Prevention, 18(1), 33.
  17. Churchill Jr, G. A. (1979). A paradigm for developing better measures of marketing constructs. Journal of marketing research, 64-73.
  18. Rodrigues-Filho, J., Alexander, C. J., & Batista, L. C. (2006).E-voting in Brazil-the risks to democracy, 85-94.
  19. Scott, J. E. (2007). An e-transformation study using the technology-organization-environment framework. BLED 2007 Proceedings, 55.
  20. Straub, D., Boudreau, M. C., &Gefen, D. (2004). Validation guidelines for IS positivist research. The Communications of the Association for Information Systems, 13(1), 63.
  21. Tambouris, E., Liotas, N., &Tarabanis, K. (2007, January).A framework for assessing eParticipation projects and tools.In System Sciences, 2007.HICSS 2007. 40th Annual Hawaii International Conference on (pp. 90-90). IEEE.
  22. Tornatzky, L. G., Fleischer, M., &Chakrabarti, A. K. (1990). Processes of technological innovation.Lexington Books.
  23. Trechsel, A. H. (2007). Internet voting in the March 2007 parliamentary elections in Estonia (Doctoral dissertation, University of Utah).
  24. Venkatesh, V. (2000). Determinants of perceived ease of use: Integrating control, intrinsic motivation, and emotion into the technology acceptance model. Information systems research, 11(4), 342-365.
  25. Witzeman, S., Slowinski, G., Dirkx, R., Gollob, L., Tao, J., Ward, S., &Miraglia, S. (2006).Harnessing external technology for innovation. Research-Technology Management, 49(3), 19-27.
  26. Zhong, Y., & Chen, J. (2002).To Vote or Not to Vote An Analysis of Peasants' Participation in Chinese Village Elections. Comparative political studies, 35(6), 686-712.
  27. Zhu, K., Kraemer, K. L., & Xu, S. (2002). A cross-country study of electronic business adoption using the technology-organization-environment framework.Center for Research on Information Technology and Organizations.