DOI QR코드

DOI QR Code

Simulation based improved seismic fragility analysis of structures

  • Ghosh, Shyamal (Department of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Engineering Science and Technology) ;
  • Chakraborty, Subrata (Department of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Engineering Science and Technology)
  • Received : 2017.01.14
  • Accepted : 2017.05.26
  • Published : 2017.05.25

Abstract

The Monte Carlo Simulation (MCS) based seismic fragility analysis (SFA) approach allows defining more realistic relationship between failure probability and seismic intensity. However, the approach requires simulating large number of nonlinear dynamic analyses of structure for reliable estimate of fragility. It makes the approach computationally challenging. The response surface method (RSM) based metamodeling approach which replaces computationally involve complex mechanical model of a structure is found to be a viable alternative in this regard. An adaptive moving least squares method (MLSM) based RSM in the MCS framework is explored in the present study for efficient SFA of existing structures. In doing so, the repetition of seismic intensity for complete generation of fragility curve is avoided by including this as one of the predictors in the response estimate model. The proposed procedure is elucidated by considering a non-linear SDOF system and an existing reinforced concrete frame considered to be located in the Guwahati City of the Northeast region of India. The fragility results are obtained by the usual least squares based and the proposed MLSM based RSM and compared with that of obtained by the direct MCS technique to study the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

Keywords

seismic fragility analysis;Monte Carlo simulation;response surface method;adaptive moving least squares method

Acknowledgement

Grant : Seismic vulnerability assessment of existing building to North Eastern Region

Supported by : DST, Govt. of India

References

  1. Atkinson, G.M. and Boore, D.M. (1998), "Evaluation of models for earthquake source spectra in eastern north America", Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am., 88(4), 917-934.
  2. Balasubramanian S.R., Balaji Rao, K., Meher Prasad, A., Goswami, R. and Anoop, M.B. (2014), "A methodology for development of seismic fragility curves for URBM buildings", Earthq. Struct., 6(6), 611-625. https://doi.org/10.12989/eas.2014.6.6.611
  3. Boore, D.M. and Boatwright, J. (1984), "Average body wave radiation coefficients", Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am., 74(5), 1615-1621.
  4. Boore, D.M. (1996), "SMSIM-Fortran programs for simulating ground motions from earthquakes: Version 1.0", U.S. Geological Survey.-Open-File Report, 96-80-A: 1-73.
  5. Boore, D.M. (2003), "Simulation of ground motion using the stochastic method", Pure Appl. Geophys., 160, 635-676. https://doi.org/10.1007/PL00012553
  6. Brune, J. (1970), "Tectonic stress and the spectra of seismic shear waves from earthquakes", J. Geophys. Res., 75(26), 4997-5009. https://doi.org/10.1029/JB075i026p04997
  7. Buratti, N., Ferracuti, B. and Savoia, M. (2010), "Response Surface with random factors for seismic fragility of reinforced concrete frames", Struct. Saf., 32(1), 42-51. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.strusafe.2009.06.003
  8. Calvi, G.M., Pinho, R., Magenes, G., Bommer, J.J., Restrepo-Velez, L.F. and Crowley, H. (2006), "Development of seismic vulnerability assessment methodologies over the past 30 years", J. Earthq. Technol., 43(3), 75-104.
  9. Chandler, A.K., Lam, N.T.K. and Tsang, H.H. (2006), "Nearsurface attenuation modelling based on rock shear-wave velocity profile", Soil Dyn. Earthq. Eng., 26(11), 1004-1014. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.soildyn.2006.02.010
  10. Dymiotis, C., Kappos, A.J. and Chryssanthopoulos, M.K. (1999), "Seismic reliability assessment of RC frames with uncertain drift and member capacity", J. Struct. Eng., ASCE, 125(9), 1038-1047. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9445(1999)125:9(1038)
  11. Eads, L., Miranda, E., Krawinkler, H. and Lignos, D.G. (2013), "An efficient method for estimating the collapse risk of structures in seismic regions", Earthq. Eng. Struct. D., 42(1), 25-41. https://doi.org/10.1002/eqe.2191
  12. Esra, M.G. and Nazli, D. (2014), "Seismic fragility analysis of conventional and viscoelastically damped moment resisting frames", Earthq. Struct., 7(3), 295-315. https://doi.org/10.12989/eas.2014.7.3.295
  13. Fang, K.T. (1980), "Experimental design by uniform distribution", Acta Mathematice Applicatae Sinica, 3, 363-372.
  14. FEMA 350, (2000), Recommended seismic criteria for new steel moment frame building, Washington.
  15. Fragiadakis, M., Vamvatsikos, D., Karlaftis, M.G., Lagaros, N.D. and Papadrakakis, M. (2015), "Seismic assessment of structures and lifelines", J. Sound Vib., 334, 29-56. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsv.2013.12.031
  16. Franchin, P., Lupoi, A. and Pinto, P.E. (2003), "Seismic fragility of reinforced concrete structures using a response surface approach", J. Earthq. Eng., 7(Sp. Issue 1), 45-77.
  17. Gasparini, D.A. and Vanmarcke, E.H. (1976), "SIMQKE, a program for artificial motion generation, user‟s manual and documentation", Publication R76-4, MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts.
  18. Goswami, S., Ghosh, S. and Chakraborty, S. (2016), "Reliability Analysis of structures by iterative improved response surface method", Struct. Saf., 60, 56-66. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.strusafe.2016.02.002
  19. Gerard, J.O. and Timothy, J.S. (2016), "Fragility functions for eccentrically braced steel frame structures", Earthq. Struct., 10(2), 367-378. https://doi.org/10.12989/eas.2016.10.2.367
  20. IS 1893. (2002), Criteria for Earthquake Resistant Design of Structures, Part 1: General Provisions and Buildings (Fifth Revision).
  21. Kang, S.C., Koh, H.M. and Choo, J.F. (2010), "An efficient response surface method using moving least squares approximation for structural reliability analysis", Prob. Eng. Mech., 25(4), 365-371. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.probengmech.2010.04.002
  22. Kaul, M.K. (1978), "Stochastic characterization of earthquakes through their response spectrum", Earthq. Eng. Struct. D., 6, 497-509. https://doi.org/10.1002/eqe.4290060506
  23. Kazantzi, A.K., Righiniotis, T.D. and Chryssanthopoulos, M.K. (2008), "Fragility and hazard analysis of a welded steel moment resisting frame", J. Earthq. Eng., 12(4), 596-615. https://doi.org/10.1080/13632460701512993
  24. Kim, C., Wang, S. and Choi, K.K. (2005), "Efficient response surface modeling by using moving least-squares method and sensitivity", AIAA J., 43(1), 2404-2411. https://doi.org/10.2514/1.12366
  25. Konno, K. and Ohmachi, T. (1998), "Ground-motion characteristics estimated from spectral ratio between horizontal and vertical components of microtremor", Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am., 88(1), 228-241.
  26. Kwon, O.S. and Elnashai, A.S. (2006), "The effect of material and ground motion uncertainty on the seismic vulnerability curves of RC structure", Eng. Struct., 28(2), 289-303. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.engstruct.2005.07.010
  27. Lin, D.K.J. and Tu, W. (1995), "Dual Response Surface Optimization", J. Quality Technol., 21(1), 34-39.
  28. Lu, D., Yu, X., Jia, M. and Wang, G. (2014), "Seismic risk assessment for a reinforced concrete frame designed according to Chinese codes", Struct. Infrastruct. Eng., 10(10), 1295-1310. https://doi.org/10.1080/15732479.2013.791326
  29. Mandal, T.K., Ghosh, S. and Pujari, N.N. (2016), "Seismic fragility analysis of a typical Indian PHWR containment: comparison of fragility models", Struct. Saf., 58, 11-19. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.strusafe.2015.08.003
  30. Mander, J.B., Priestley, M.J.N. and Park, R. (1988), "Theoretical stress-strain model for confined concrete", J. Struct. Eng., ASCE, 114(8), 1804-1826. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9445(1988)114:8(1804)
  31. Mann, N.R., Schafer, R.E. and Singpurwalla, N.D. (1974), Methods for statistical analysis of reliability and life data, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York., NY.
  32. Marano, G.C., Greco, R. and Mezzina, M. (2008), "Stochastic approach for analytical fragility curves", KSCE J. Civ. Eng., 12(5), 305-312. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12205-008-0305-8
  33. Moller, O., Ricardo, O.F., Rubinstein, M. and Quiroz, L. (2009), "Seismic structural reliability using different nonlinear dynamic response surface approximations", Struct. Saf., 31(5), 432-442. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.strusafe.2008.12.001
  34. Mitra, S., Priestley, K., Bhattacharyya, A.K. and Gaur, V.K. (2005), "Crustal structure and earthquake focal depths beneath northeastern India and Southern Tibet", Geophys. J. Int., 160(1), 227-248.
  35. Minas, D.S. and Chatzi, E.N. (2015), "Metamodeling of nonlinear structural systems with parametric uncertainty subject to stochastic dynamic excitation", Earthq. Struct., 8(4), 915-934. https://doi.org/10.12989/eas.2015.8.4.915
  36. Nicholas, K., Sohaib, A., Kypros, P., Kyriacos, N. and Christis, C. (2014), "A probabilistic analytical seismic vulnerability assessment framework for substandard structures in developing countries", Earthq. Struct., 6(6), 665-687. https://doi.org/10.12989/eas.2014.6.6.665
  37. Park, J. and Towashiraporn, P. (2014), "Rapid seismic damage assessment of railway bridges using the response-surface statistical model", Struct. Saf., 47, 1-12. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.strusafe.2013.10.001
  38. Raghukanth, S.T.G. and Somala, S.N. (2009), "Modeling of strong-motion data in northeastern india: q, stress drop, and site amplification", Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am., 99(2A), 705-725. https://doi.org/10.1785/0120080025
  39. Saha, S.K., Matsagar, V. and Chakraborty, S. (2016), "Uncertainty quantification and seismic fragility of base-isolated liquid storage tanks using response surface models", Prob. Eng. Mech., 43, 20-35. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.probengmech.2015.10.008
  40. Saragoni, G.R. and Hart, G.C. (1974), "Simulation of artificial earthquakes", Earthq. Eng. Struct. D., 2(3), 249-268.
  41. Simpson, T.W., Peplinski, J.D., Koch, P.N. and Allen, J.K. (2001), "Metamodels for computer-based engineering design: survey and recommendations", Eng. Computers, 17(2), 129-150. https://doi.org/10.1007/PL00007198
  42. Singh, S.K., Ordaz, M., Dattatrayam, R.S. and Gupta, H.K. (1999), "A spectral analysis of the 21 May 1997, Jabalpur, India, earthquake (Mw 5:8) and estimation of ground motion from future earthquakes in the Indian shield region", Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am., 89(6), 1620-1630.
  43. Taflanidis, A.A. and Cheung, S.H. (2012), "Stochastic sampling using moving least squares response surface approximations", Prob. Eng. Mech., 28, 216-224. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.probengmech.2011.07.003
  44. Towashiraporn, P. (2004), "Building seismic fragility using response surface metamodel", Ph.D. Thesis, Georgia Inst. of Tech.
  45. Unnikrishnan, U., Prasad, A.M. and Rao, B.N. (2013), "Development of fragility curves using high-dimensional model representation", Earthq. Eng. Struct. D., 42(3), 419-430. https://doi.org/10.1002/eqe.2214
  46. Zeinab, B. and Masoud, S. (2016), "Ground motion selection and scaling for seismic design of RC frames against collapse", Earthq. Struct., 11(3), 445-459. https://doi.org/10.12989/eas.2016.11.3.445