- Volume 12 Issue 5
The effects of past earthquakes have demonstrated the seismic vulnerability of confined masonry structures (CMSs) to earthquakes. The results of experimental analysis indicate that damage to these structures depends on lateral displacement applied to the walls. Seismic evaluation lacks an analytical approach because of the complexity of the behavior of this type of structure; an empirical approach is often used for this purpose. Seismic assessment and risk analysis of CMSs, especially in area have a large number of such buildings is difficult and could be riddled with error. The present study used analytical and numerical models to develop a simplified nonlinear displacement-based approach for seismic assessment of a CMS. The methodology is based on the concept of ESDOF and displacement demand and is compared with displacement capacity at the characteristic period of vibration according to performance level. Displacement demand was identified using the nonlinear displacement spectrum for a specified limit state. This approach is based on a macro model and nonlinear incremental dynamic analysis of a 3D prototype structure taking into account uncertainty of the mechanical properties and results in a simple, precise method for seismic assessment of a CMS. To validate the approach, a case study was considered in the form of an analytical fragility curve which was then compared with the precise method.
confined masonry;displacement based assessment;fragility curves;vulnerability assessment;performance based;analytical model;OpenSees;ESDOF
- Ahamad, N., Crowley, H., Pinho, R. and Ali, Q. (2010), "Displacement-based earthquake loss assessment of masonry buildings in Mansehra City, Pakistan", J. Earthq. Eng., 14(S1), 1-37. https://doi.org/10.1080/13632461003651794
- Alcocer, S.M., Ruiz, J., Pineda, A. and Zepeda, A. (1996), "Retrofitting of confined masonry walls with welded wire mesh", Eleventh world conference on earthquake engineering, paper No 1471.
- Boreckci, M. and Kircil, M. (2011), "Fragility analysis of R/C frame buildings based on different types of hysteretic model", Struct. Eng. Mech., 39(6), 795-812. https://doi.org/10.12989/sem.2011.39.6.795
- Brzev, S. (2007), Earthquake-Resistant confined masonry construction, National information center of earthquake engineering(NICEE).
- Comite Europeen de Normalisation (CEN) Eurocode 8. (1994), Design Provisions for Earthquake Resistance of Structures, Part 1-1: General Rules-Seismic Actions and General Requirements for Structures, prEN 1998-1-1, CEN, Belgium.
- Chopra, A. and Goel, R. (1999), "Capacity-demand-diagram methods for estimating seismic deformation of inelastic structures: SDF systems", Civ. Environ. Eng., 53.
- Chopra, A. and Goel, R. (2001), "Direct displacement-based design use of inelastic vs. elastic design spectra", Earthq. Spectra, 17(1), 47-64. https://doi.org/10.1193/1.1586166
- Design code (2011), Seismic Design guide for low rise confined masonry buildings, Okland, California.
- DIANA (2005), "DIANA finite element analysis, user's manualelement library", Delft: TNO Building and Construction Research.
- Dwairi, H.M., Kowalsky, M.J. and Nau, J.M. (2007), "Equivalent damping in support of direct displacement-based design", J. Earthq. Eng., 11(4), 512-530. https://doi.org/10.1080/13632460601033884
- Flores, L.E. and Alcocer, S.M. (1996), "Calculated response of confined masonry structures", 11th World conference on Earthquake Engineering, Paper No. 1830.
- Jeong, S.H. and Elnashai, A. (2007), "Probabilistic fragility analysis parameterized by fundamental response quantities", Eng. Struct., 29(6), 1238-1251. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.engstruct.2006.06.026
- Lang, K. (2002), Seismic vulnerability of existing buildings. Institute of structural Engineering, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zurich.
- Lourenco, P. (1996), "Computational strategies for masonry structures", Delft university.
- Marinilli, A. and Castilla, E. (2004), "Experimental evaluation of confined masonry walls with several confining columns", Proceedings of the Thirteenth World Conference on Earthquake Engineering, Vancouver, Canada, August.
- Moroni, M.O., Astroza, M. and Tavonatti, S. (1994), "Nonlinear models for shear failure in confined masonry walls", The Masonry Soc. J., 12(2), 72-77.
- OpenSees (2006), "OpenSees command language manual, Pacific, Earthquake engineering research center", University of California, Berkeley,
- OpenSees (2009), "Open System for Earthquake Engineering Simulation: OpenSees v2.3.2", http//:opensees.berkeley.edu.
- Priestley, M.J.N. (1997), "Displacement-based seismic assessment of reinforced concrete buildings", J. Earthq. Eng., 1(1), 157-192.
- Priestley, M.J.N, Calvi, G.M. and Kowalsky, M.J. (2007), "Displacement-based seismic design of structures", IUSS Press.
- Ranjbaran, F. and Hosseini, M. (2010), "A Simplified behavioral model for nonlinear seismic analysis of confined masonry walls", Proceedings of the 9th US National and 10th Canadian Conference on Earthquake Engineering, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
- Ranjbaran, F., Hosseini, M. and Soltani, S. (2012), "Simplified formulation for modeling the nonlinear behavior of confined masonry walls in seismic analysis", Int. J. Architec. Herit., 6(3), 259-289. https://doi.org/10.1080/15583058.2010.528826
- Ranjbaran, F. and Hosseini, M. (2014), "Seismic vulnerability assessment of confined masonry wall buildings", Earthq. Struct., 7(2), 201-216. https://doi.org/10.12989/eas.2014.7.2.201
- Riahi, Z., Elwood, K. and Alcocer, S.M. (2009), "Backbone model for confined masonry walls for performance-based seismic design", J. Struct. Eng., ASCE, 135(6), 644-654. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)ST.1943-541X.0000012
- Ruiz-Garcia, J. and Negrete, M. (2009), "Drift-based fragility assessment of confined masonry walls in seismic zones", Eng Struct., 31(1), 170-181. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.engstruct.2008.08.010
- Ruiz-Garcia, J. and Negrete, M. (2009), "A simplified drift-based assessment procedure for regular confined masonry buildings in seismic regions", J. Earthq. Eng., 13(4), 520-539. https://doi.org/10.1080/13632460802598560
- Shibata, A. and Sozen, M.A. (1976), "Substitute-structure method for seismic design in R/C", J. Struct. Div., ASCE, 102, 1-18.
- Teran-Gilmore, A., Zuniga-Cuevas, O.A. and Ruiz-Garcia, J. (2009), "Displacement-based assessment of low-height confined masonry buildings", Earthq. Spectra, 25(2), 439-464. https://doi.org/10.1193/1.3111149
- Tomazevich, M. and Klemenk, I. (1997), "Verification of seismic resistance of confined masonry buildings", Earthq. Eng. Struct. Dyn., 26(10), 1073-1088. https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1096-9845(199710)26:10<1073::AID-EQE695>3.0.CO;2-Z
- Tomazevic, M. and Klemenc, I. )1998), "Seismic behavior of confined masonry walls", Earthq. Eng. Struct. Dyn., 26(10), 1059-1071.
- Tomazevic, M. (1999), Earthquake Resistant design of masonry buildings, Imperial college press.