The relationship between knowledge hiding and knowledge sharing : Through determinants of knowledge hiding and knowledge sharing

지식은폐와 지식공유의 영향요인과 관계에 관한 연구

  • Received : 2017.04.29
  • Accepted : 2017.06.22
  • Published : 2017.06.01


Knowledge is important to both individuals and organizations. Individuals can have the opportunity to have bargaining power within their organisations by having knowledge of know-how and ideas. Having ample knowledge of the organization can bring about advantages in securing competitive advantage. Organization wants to encourage employees to share knowledge. Despite the efforts to enhance knowledge sharing, often the effort failed. Employees are unwilling to share their knowledge or hide their knowledge. The purpose of this study is to clarify the relationship between knowledge hiding and knowledge sharing based on exploring the influence factors of knowledge hiding and knowledge sharing. As a result, the influence factors of knowledge hiding and knowledge sharing were different. The influences of knowledge hiding influenced knowledge hiding only and did not affect knowledge sharing. This implies that knowledge hiding and knowledge sharing do not exist on a single line but exist independently of each other, such as 'Herzberg's two-factor theory'. This study suggests that knowledge hiding is a field of interest as well as knowledge sharing. In practice, it is suggested that the concept of promoting knowledge sharing is not a way to reduce knowledge hiding, so the two concepts should be managed separately.


  1. Kang, S. W. 2016. "Knowledge withholding: psychological hindrance to the innovation diffusion within an organization", Knowledge Management Research & Practice, (14:1), pp.144-149.
  2. 고광환, 송영렬 2004. "지식공유가 조직성과에 미치는 영향에 관한 연구," 전문경영인 연구, (7:1), pp.1-20.
  3. 김문식 2013. "자기주도학습능력과 지식공유의 관계에 대한 개인의 목표지향성과 조직 특성의 조절 효과," 한국기업경영학회, (20:4), pp.249-271.
  4. 김창호 2009. 변화경영, 부산대학교 출판부.
  5. 류성열, 구철모, 서우종 2009. "실행공동체와 조직의 지식교환에 대한 실증연구: 조직지원, 신뢰, 정보시스템을 중심으로", 대한경영학회, (22:1), pp.99-128.
  6. 박문수, 문형구 2004. "집단 간 지식공유의 영향 요인에 관한 연구," 지식경영연구, (5:2), pp.1-23.
  7. 신원무 1998. 지식경영: 경영혁신에 있어 효과적인 지식전파의 조건에 관한 연구, 박사학위논문, 연세대학교 대학원.
  8. 이승한 2001. "지식관리시스템을 활용한 지식공유행위에 영향을 미치는 요인에 관한 연구," 석사학위논문, 한국과학기술원 대학원.
  9. 조영복, 곽선화 2007. 조직이론과 관리, 삼영사.
  10. 한광현 2008. "생산직 근로자들의 반생산적 과업행동 결정요인 및 조절변인에 대한 다원적 접근", 대한경영학회, (21:6), pp.2771-2798
  11. 허명숙, 천명중 2007. "플로우(Flow)의 구성요인, 조직몰입, 지식공유와 직무만족과의 관계에 대한 실증연구," 정보시스템연구 (16:4),pp.1-31.
  12. Alavi, M., & Leidner, D. E. 1999. "Knowledge management systems: Issues, challenges, and benefits," Communications of the AIS (1:2), pp. 1-37.
  13. Alavi, M., & Leidner, D. E. 2001. "Knowledge management and knowledge management systems : Conceptual foundations and research issues," MIS Quarterly (25:1).
  14. Anand, P., & Jain, K. K. 2014. "Big Five Personality Types & Knowledge Hiding Behaviour: A Theoretical Framework," Archives of Business Research (2:5), pp. 47-56.
  15. A ndersson, L . M., & Pea rson, C . M. 1999. " Tit for tat? The spiraling effect of incivility in the workplace," Academy of Management Review (24:3), pp. 452-471.
  16. Andrews, K. M., & Delahaye, B. L. 2000. "Influences on knowledge processes in organizational learning : The psychosocial filter,". Journal of Management Studies (37:6), pp.797-810.
  17. Argote, L., & Ingram, P. 2000. "Knowledge transfer: A basis for competitive advantage in firms," Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes (82:1), pp. 150-169.
  18. Babcock, P. 2004. "Shedding light on knowledgemanagement," HR magazine,(49:5),pp. 46-51.
  19. Bartol, K. M., Liu, W., Zeng, X., & Wu, K. 2009. "Social exchange and knowledge sharing among knowledge workers: The moderating role of perceived job security," Management and Organization Review (5:2), pp. 223-240.
  20. Beckman, T. 1997. "A methodology of knowledge management," International Association of Science and Technology for Deverlopment's International Conference on AI and Soft Computing, Banff, Canada.
  21. Bock, G. W., Zmud, R. W., Kim, Y. G., & Lee, J. N. 2005."Behavioral intention for mation in knowledge sharing : examining the Roles of extrinsic motivators, social-psychological forces, and organizational climate," MIS Quarterly (29:1), pp.87-111.
  22. Buller, D. B., & Burgoon, J. K. 1996. "Interpersonal deception theory," Communication Theory (6), pp.203-242.
  23. Cabrera, A., & Cabrera, E. F. 2002 . "Knowledge sharing dilemmas," Organization Studies (23:5), pp. 687-710.
  24. Cerne, M., Nerstad, C. G., Dysvik, A., & Skerlavaj, M. (2014). "What goes around comes around: Knowledge hiding, perceived motivational climate, and creativity". Academy of Management Journal (57:1), pp. 172-192.
  25. Chennamaneni, A. 2006. "Determinants of knowledge sharing behaviors : Developing and testing an integrated theoretical model,"
  26. Connelly, C. E., Zweig, D., Webster, J., & Trougakos, J. P. 2012. "Knowledge hiding in organizations," Journal of Organizational Behavior (33), pp. 64-88.
  27. Connelly, C. E., & Zweig, D. 2015. "How perpetrators and targets construe knowledge hiding in organizations," European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology (24:3), pp. 479-489.
  28. Davenport, T. H., & Pruzak, L. 1998. Working knowledge: How organizations manage what they know. Harvard Business Press.
  29. Demirkasimoglu, N. 2015. "Knowledge Hiding in Academia: Is Personality a Key Factor?". International Journal of Higher Education, (5:1), pp.128.
  30. Doherty, W. J., & Baldwin, C. 1985. "Shifts and stability in locus of control during the 1970s: Divergence of the sexes," Journal of Personality and Social Psychology (48:4), pp. 1048-1053.
  31. Duffy, M. K., Ganster, D. C., & Pagon, M. 2002. "Social undermining in the workplace," Academy of Management Journal (45), pp. 331-351.
  32. Eisenberger, R., Armeli, S., Rexwinkel, B., Lynch, P. D., & R hoades, L. 2001. "Reciprocation of perceived organizational support." Journal of Applied Psychology (86), pp. 42-51.
  33. Eisenberger, R., Cummings, J., Armeli, S., & Lynch, P. 1997. "Perceived organizational support, discretionary treatment, and job satisfaction," Journal of Applied Psychology (82:5), pp. 812-820.
  34. Evans, J. M., Hendron, M. G., & Oldroyd, J. B. 2014. "Withholding the ace: The individual-and unit-level performance effects of self-reported and perceived knowledge hoarding," Organization Science (26:2), pp. 494-510.
  35. Gold, A. H., Malhotra, A., & Segars, A. H. 2001. "Knowledge management :An organizational capabilities perspective," Journal of Management Information Systems (18:1), pp. 185.
  36. Hislop, D. 2003. "Linking human resource management and knowledge management via commitment: A review and research agenda," Employee relations (25:2), pp. 182-202.
  37. Hutchison, S., Sowa, D., Eisenberger, R., & Huntington, R. 1986. "Perceived organizational support," Journal of Applied Psychology (71:3), pp. 500-507.
  38. Kankanhalli, A., Tan, B. C., & Wei, K. K. 2005."Contributing knowledge to electronic knowledge repositories : An empirical investigation," MIS Quarterly, (29:1), pp.113-143.
  39. Karkoulian, S., & Mahseredian J. A. 2012. "Prediction of knowledge acquisition, knowledge sharing and knowledge utilization from locus of control : An empirical investigation," Business Studies Journal (4:2).
  40. Krogh, G. V. 1998. "Care in knowledge creation," California Management Review (40:3), pp. 133-153.
  41. Lewicki, R. J., McAllister, D. J., & Bies, R. J. 1998. " Trust and distrust : New relationship and realities," Academy of Management Review (23:3), pp. 438-458.
  42. Lin, T. C., & Huang, C. C. 2010. "Withholding effort in knowledge contribution: The role of social exchange and social cognitive on project teams," Information & Management (47:3), pp. 188-196.
  43. Mcdermott, R. & O'Dell, C. 2001. "Overcoming cultural barriers to sharing knowledging," Journal of Knowledge Management, (5:1), pp. 76-85.
  44. Nelson, K. M., & Cooprider, J. G. 1996. "The contribution of shared knowledge to IS group performance," MIS Quarterly (20), pp. 409-432.
  45. Neuman, J. H., & Baron, R. A. 1998. "Work place violence and work place aggression : Evidence concerning specific forms, potential causes, and preferred targets," Journal of Management,(24:3), pp. 391-419.
  46. Nonaka, I., & Takeuchi, H. 1995. The knowledge - creating company : How Japanese companies create the dynamics of innovation. Oxford university press.
  47. O'Dell, C. & Grason, C. J. 1999. "If only we knew what we know: Identification and transfer of internal best practices," California Management Review (40:3), pp. 154-174.
  48. Pan, W., Zhou, Y., & Zhang, Q. 2016. "Does Darker Hide More Knowledge? The Relationship between Machiavellianism and Knowledge Hiding," International Journal of Security and Its Applications (10:11), pp. 281-292.
  49. Peng, H. 2012. "Counterproductive work behav ior among Chinese knowledge workers". International Journal of Selection and Assessment, (20:2), pp.119-138.
  50. Peng, H. 2013. "Why and when do people hide knowledge?," Journal of Knowledge Management (17:3), pp. 398-415.
  51. Pearson, C. M., Andersson, L . M., & Porath, C. L. 2004.' Workplace incivility' . In S. Fox, & P. Spector (Eds.), "Counterproductive work behavior: Investigations of actors and targets", Washington, DC: APA., pp. 177-199.
  52. Rechberg, I., & Syed, J. 2013."Ethical issues in knowledge management: conflict of knowledge ownership." Journal of Knowledge Management, (17:6), pp. 828-847.
  53. Rotundo, M., & Sackett, P. R. 2002. "The relative importance of task, citizenship, and counter productive performance to global ratings of job performance: a policy-capturing approach," Journal of Applied Psychology (87:1), pp. 66-80.
  54. Ruggles, R, 1998. "The State of the notion: knowledge management in practice," California Management Review (40), pp. 80-89.
  55. Sackett, P. R.. 2002. "The structure of counter productive work behaviors; Dimensionality and relationships with facet of job performance," International Journal of Selection and Assessment (10), pp. 5-11.
  56. Serenko, A., Serenko, A., Bontis, N., & Bontis, N. 2016." Understanding counterproductive knowledge behavior: antecedents and consequences of intraorganizational knowledge hiding," Journal of Knowledge Management (20:6), pp. 1199-1224.
  57. Spector, P. E. 1988. "Development of the work locus of control scale," Journal of occupational psychology (61:4), pp. 335-340.
  58. Stewart, K. A. 1997. Structural capital 1: Knowledge management, intellectual capital, Double/Currrency.
  59. Szuranski, G. 1999. "Exploring internal stickiness: Impediments to the transfer of best practice within the firm," Strategic Management Journal (17), pp. 27-44.
  60. von der Trenck, A. 2015. "It's Mine." The Role of Psychological Ownership and Territoriality in Knowledge Hiding.
  61. Webster, J., Brown, G., Zweig, D., Connelly, C. E., Brodt, S., & Sitkin, S. 2008. "Beyond knowledge sharing : Knowledge with holding at work," Research in personnel and human resources management (27), pp. 1-37.
  62. Xenoudaki, C., & Stafyla, A. 2012. "Contextual Factors and Personalit y Traits in the Exhibition of Deceiving and Hiding-Related Behaviors of Employees. In Post Layoff Environments in Greece. International Conference on Enterprise Systems", Accounting and Logistics , pp. 369-384.
  63. Zhao, H., Xia, Q., He, P., Sheard, G., & Wan, P. 2016. "Workplace ost racism and knowledge hiding in service organizations," International Journal of Hospitality Management (59), pp. 84-94.
  64. Zhao, H., Zhao, H., Xia, Q., & Xia, Q. 2017. "An examination of the curvilinear relationship between workplace ostracism and knowledge hoarding." Management Decision, (55:2),pp. 331-346.