DOI QR코드

DOI QR Code

The Effects of Electrical Stimulation Method on Muscle Strength, Pain, Range of Motion, Fear Avoidance-Belief in Patients with Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction

전기자극방법이 앞십자인대 재건술환자의 근력과 통증, 관절가동범위 및 공포-회피반응에 미치는 영향

  • Park, Shin-Jun (Department of Physical Therapy, Gangdong College) ;
  • Lee, Ju-Hwan (Department of Physical Therapy, Graduate School of Yongin University) ;
  • Lee, Duck-Jae (Department of Physical Therapy, Graduate School of Baekseok University)
  • 박신준 (강동대학교 물리치료과) ;
  • 이주환 (용인대학교 일반대학원) ;
  • 이덕재 (백석대학교 보건복지대학원)
  • Received : 2017.03.13
  • Accepted : 2017.06.09
  • Published : 2017.06.30

Abstract

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) and transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) on muscular strength, pain, range of motion and fear-avoidance in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) patients. The subjects of this study who received ACLR after arthroscopic injury were divided into two groups: NMES (n=14) and TENS (n=14). Each group received intervention after routine physical therapy. Each electrotherapy intervention was applied regularly for a total of 12 times, 3 times a day (30 minutes) for 4 weeks. The evaluation by intervention method included isokinetic muscle strength in flexion and extension of the knee joint, pain, range of motion of the knee joint, and fear-avoidance beliefs. The results showed significant improvement in pain, range of motion, and fear-avoidance beliefs in both groups (p<0.05). However, there was a significant improvement in isokinetic knee flexion and extension strength only in the NMES group (p<0.05). There was no significant difference between the two electrotherapy methods in muscle strength, pain, range of motion, and fear-avoidance beliefs. These study results suggest that NMES and TENS can be effective intervention methods for pain, range of motion, and fear-avoidance response in patients with ACLR, but to improve muscle strength NMES may be more effective.

Keywords

Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction;Fear-Avoidance Belief;Muscle Strength;Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation;Pain;Range Of Motion;Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation

References

  1. T. E. Hewett, S. L. Di Stasi, G. D. Myer. "Current concepts for injury prevention in athletes after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction," The American journal of sports medicine, vol. 41, no. 1, pp. 216-224, 2013. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/0363546512459638 https://doi.org/10.1177/0363546512459638
  2. B. P. Boden, J. A. Feagin Jr, W. E. Garrett Jr. "Mechanisms of anterior cruciate ligament injury," Journal of Orthopedics, vol. 23, no. 6, pp. 573-578, 2000.
  3. Y. J. Kim, J. M. Jung, J. T. Han. "Exercise treatment of knee joint after anterior crutiate ligament reconstruction operation," Journal of Korean Society of Physical Medicine, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 27-37, 2008.
  4. R. M. Palmieri-Smith, A. C. Thomas. E. M. Wojtys. "Maximizing quadriceps strength after ACL reconstruction," Journal of Clinics in Sports Medicine, vol. 27, no. 3, pp. 405-424, 2008. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.csm.2008.02.001 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.csm.2008.02.001
  5. J. Kvist, A. Ek, K. Sporrstedt, L. Good. "Fear of re-injury: a hindrance for returning to sports after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction," Journal of Knee surgery, sports traumatology, arthroscopy, vol. 13, no. 5, pp. 393-397, 2005. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00167-004-0591-8
  6. D. J. Lee, J. H. Shim, S. I. Yoon, S. J. Park. "Effect of convergence-based russian current and transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation at quadriceps muscle on pain, strength, and performance in persons with anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction," Journal of the korea convergence society, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 77-87, 2017. https://doi.org/10.15207/JKCS.2017.8.1.077
  7. L. Snyder-Mackler, A. Delitto, S. W. Stralka, S. L. Bailey. "Use of electrical stimulation to enhance recovery of quadriceps femoris muscle force production in patients following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction," Journal of Physical therapy, vol. 74, no. 10, pp. 901-907, 1994. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/ptj/74.10.901 https://doi.org/10.1093/ptj/74.10.901
  8. D. K. Kim, J. H. Hwang, W. H. Park. "Effects of 4 weeks preoperative exercise on knee extensor strength after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction." Journal of physical therapy science, vol. 27, no. 9, pp. 2693-2696, 2015. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1589/jpts.27.2693 https://doi.org/10.1589/jpts.27.2693
  9. B. A. Rakel, M. B. Zimmerman, K. Geasland, J. Embree, C. R. Clark, N. O. Noiseux, K. A. Sluka. "Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation for the control of pain during rehabilitation after total knee arthroplasty: A randomized, blinded, placebo-controlled trial," Journal of PAIN, vol. 155, no. 12, pp. 2599-2611, 2014. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pain.2014.09.025 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pain.2014.09.025
  10. K. A. Sluka, D. Walsh. "Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation: basic science mechanisms and clinical effectiveness," The Journal of Pain, vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 109-121, 2003. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1054/jpai.2003.434 https://doi.org/10.1054/jpai.2003.434
  11. I. Jones, M. I. Johnson. "Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation," Journal of Continuing Education in Anaesthesia, vol. 9, no. 4. pp. 130-135, 2009. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/bjaceaccp/mkp021 https://doi.org/10.1093/bjaceaccp/mkp021
  12. Z. R. Shirazi, R. Shafaee, L. Abbasi. "The effects of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation on joint position sense in patients with knee joint osteoarthritis." Journal of Physiotherapy theory and practice, vol. 30, no. 7, pp. 495-499. 2014. https://doi.org/10.3109/09593985.2014.903547
  13. F. Altay, D. Durmus, F. Canturk. "Effects of tens on pain, disabiliy, quality of life and depression in patients with knee osteoarthritis/Tens' in diz osteoartritli hastalarda agri, ozurluluk, yaaam kalitesi ve depresyon uzerine etkisi," Turkish Journal of Rheumatology, vol. 25, no. 3, pp. 116-122, 2010. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5152/tjr.2010.14 https://doi.org/10.5152/tjr.2010.14
  14. Ward, A. R., & Shkuratova, N. "Russian electrical stimulation: the early experiments," Journal of Physical Therapy, vol. 82, no. 10, pp. 1019-1030, 2002.
  15. D. H. Park, J. S. Ryu. "Neuromuscular electrical stimulation for swallowing," Journal of the Korean Dysphagia Society, Vol 6, no. 1, pp. 1-6. 2016.
  16. W. R. Holcomb, S. Golestani, S. Hill. "A comparison of knee-Extension torque production with biphasic versus russian current," Journal of Sport Rehabilitation, vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 229-240, 2000. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1123/jsr.9.3.229 https://doi.org/10.1123/jsr.9.3.229
  17. B. O. Jung, H. S. Bang. "Effect of russian current stimulation on muscular performance and muscle activity of quadriceps femoris muscle of convalescent patient after leg fracture," Journal of Digital Convergence, vol. 12, no. 7, pp. 365-370, 2014. DOI: https://doi.org/10.14400/JDC.2014.12.7.365
  18. A. H. Draz, A. A. Abdel-aziem, M. H. A. Elenain. "Bilateral effect of unilateral isokinetic concentric training and Russian current stimulation on quadriceps strength," American Journal of Health Research, vol. 2, no. 6, pp. 350-355. 2014. https://doi.org/10.11648/j.ajhr.20140206.15
  19. B. G. Pietrosimone, J. M. Hart, S. A. Saliba, J. Hertel, C. D. Ingersoll. "Immediate effects of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation and focal knee joint cooling on quadriceps activation," Journal of Medicine& Science in Sports& Exercise, vol. 41, no. 6, pp. 1175-1181, 2009. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1249/MSS.0b013e3181982557 https://doi.org/10.1249/MSS.0b013e3181982557
  20. J. Taradaj, T. Halski, M. Kucharzewski, K. Walewicz, A. Smykla, M. Ozon, L. Slupska, R. Dymarek, K. Ptaszkowski, J. Rajfur, M. Pasternok. "The effect of neuromuscular electrical stimulation on quadriceps strength and knee function in professional soccer players: return to sport after ACL reconstruction." BioMed research international, 2013. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1155/2013/802534
  21. R. C. Manske, Postsurgical orthopedic sports rehabilitation: knee & shoulder. Elsevier Health Sciences, Mosby, p. 164, 2006.
  22. J. G. Yoon. "The relationship between personality, music type and MVIC, power for the knee extensor on inducing muscle fatigue," Journal of Korean Society of Physical Medicine, vol. 8, no. 4, pp. 593-600, 2013. DOI: https://doi.org/10.13066/kspm.2013.8.4.593 https://doi.org/10.13066/kspm.2013.8.4.593
  23. J. G. Yoon. "The effect of self-controlled feedback on proprioception in elbow flexion of healthy subjects," Journal of the Korean Society of Physical Medicine, vol. 7, no. 4, pp. 493-500, 2012. DOI: https://doi.org/10.13066/kspm.2012.7.4.493 https://doi.org/10.13066/kspm.2012.7.4.493
  24. P. E. Bijur, W. Silver, E. J. Gallagher. "Reliability of the visual analog scale for measurement of acute pain," Journal of Academic emergency medicine, vol. 8, no. 12, pp. 1153-1157. 2001. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1553-2712.2001.tb01132.x
  25. J. Y. Jenny. "Measurement of the knee flexion angle with a smartphone-application is precise and accurate," The Journal of arthroplasty, vol. 28, no. 5, 784-787. 2013. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.arth.2012.11.013 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.arth.2012.11.013
  26. M. K. Joo, T. Y. Kim, J. T. Kim, S. Y. Kim. "Reliability and validity of the korean version of the Fear-Avoidance Beliefs Questionnaire," Journal of Physical Therapy Korea, vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 24-30, 2009.
  27. G. Waddell, M. Newton, I. Henderson, D. Somerville, C. J. Main. "A Fear-Avoidance Beliefs Questionnaire (FABQ) and the role of fear-avoidance beliefs in chronic low back pain and disability," Journal of Pain, vol. 52, no. 2, pp. 157-168, 1993. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/0304-3959(93)90127-B https://doi.org/10.1016/0304-3959(93)90127-B
  28. M. G. Dolan. "The efficacy of neuromuscular electrical stimulation for muscle-strength augmentation," Journal of Athletic Therapy Today. vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 39-42, 2007.
  29. J. T. Hopkins, C. D. Ingersoll, J. Edwards, T. E. Klootwyk. "Cryotherapy and transcutaneous electric neuromuscular stimulation decrease arthrogenic muscle inhibition of the vastus medialis after knee joint effusion," Journal of athletic training, vol. 37, no. 1, pp.25-31, 2002.
  30. G. K. Fitzgerald, S. R. Piva, J. J. Irrgang. "A modified neuromuscular electrical stimulation protocol for quadriceps strength training following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction," Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy, vol. 33, no. 9, pp. 492-501, 2003. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2519/jospt.2003.33.9.492 https://doi.org/10.2519/jospt.2003.33.9.492
  31. K. S. Kang, J. S. Jang, J. H. Moon, Park. H. W, K. H, Yang, B. Y. Jang. "The role of the hamstrings as antagonist of quadriceps in maintaining knee joint stability," J of Korean Orthop Assoc. vol. 26, no. 3, pp. 945-949. 1991.
  32. D. A. Neumann, Kinesiology of the musculoskeletal system: foundations for rehabilitation(2th ed). pp. 52-56, St Louis, Mosby, 2010.
  33. M. Levine, K. McElroy, V. Stakich, J. Cicco. "Comparing conventional physical therapy rehabilitation with neuromuscular electrical stimulation after TKA," Journal of Orthopedics, vol. 36, no. 3, pp. 319-324, 2013. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3928/01477447-20130222-20 https://doi.org/10.3928/01477447-20130222-20
  34. M. Leeuw, M. E Goossens, S. J. Linton, G. Crombez, K. Boersma, J. W. Vlaeyen. "The fear-avoidance model of musculoskeletal pain: current state of scientific evidence," Journal of behavioral medicine, vol. 30, no. 1, pp. 77-94. 2007. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10865-006-9085-0 https://doi.org/10.1007/s10865-006-9085-0
  35. J. M. Giesinger, M. S. Kuster, H. Behrend, K. Giesinger, "Association of psychological status and patient-reported physical outcome measures in joint arthroplasty: a lack of divergent validity," Journal of Health and quality of life outcomes, vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 1-6, 2013. https://doi.org/10.1186/1477-7525-11-1
  36. H. Y. Choi, S. H. Lee, T. S. In, S. H. Kang, D. Y. Lee, C. H. Song. "Effectiveness of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation(TENS) on the changes of postural balance and muscle contraction following muscle fatigue," Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society. vol. 11, no. 11, pp. 4418-4426, 2010. DOI: http://doi.org/10.5762/KAIS.2010.11.11.4418 https://doi.org/10.5762/KAIS.2010.11.11.4418
  37. Y. H. Bae. "The analgesic effects of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation and interferential currents on the experimental ischemic pain model: frequency 50 Hz," Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society. vol. 13, no. 6, pp. 2617-2624, 2012. DOI: http://doi.org/10.5762/KAIS.2012.13.6.2617 https://doi.org/10.5762/KAIS.2012.13.6.2617
  38. J. S. Wang, H. J. An, Y. Y. Kim. "Effect of joint mobilization on improvement of knee pain, isokinetic strength, muscle tone, muscle stiffness in an elite volleyball player with knee injury," Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society. vol. 17, no. 7, pp. 326-333, 2016. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5762/KAIS.2016.17.7.326
  39. D. H. Moon, D. H. Oh, S. A. Zhang, J. K. Lee. "Effect of backward walking exercise on ROM, VAS score and proprioception in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction patients," Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society. vol. 17, no. 5, pp. 522-529, 2016. DOI: http://doi.org/10.5762/KAIS.2016.17.5.522 https://doi.org/10.5762/KAIS.2016.17.5.522
  40. S. K. Hong, S. J. Kim, J. M. Y. Sim. "effect of kinesio taping application on isokinetic muscle function of football athletes with knee injury," Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society. Proceedings of the KAIS Fall Conference, pp. 895-897, 2015.
  41. H. I. Jang, S. H. Kim, J. C. Seo, H. J. Ahn, M. J. Choi , D. H. Lee. "The effect of the muscle activity in lower limb by the knee joint angle and tilt table squat exercise," Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society. Proceedings of the KAIS Fall Conference, pp. 667-669. 2015.
  42. S. J. Lee, W. H. Choi, C. G. Lim. "Effects of complex exercise program on pain and muscle activation in elderly patients with knee osteoarthritis," Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society, vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 1684-1689, 2012. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5762/KAIS.2012.13.4.1684 https://doi.org/10.5762/KAIS.2012.13.4.1684
  43. N. R. Lee, S. J. Yun, K. S. Choi. "The effect of pilates exercises on isokinetic muscular strength and balance in lower limb′s for young aged women," Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society, vol. 17, no. 11, pp. 691-700, 2016. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5762/KAIS.2016.17.11.691