The Influence of Qigong Exercise Intervention upon a Change in Glucose, Blood Lipid and SFT(Senior Fitness Test) in Elderly Women

기(氣)체조 운동중재가 여성고령자의 혈당, 혈중지질, 체력(SFT) 변화에 미치는 영향

  • Kim, Ji-Sun (Department of Leisure Sports, Jungwon University)
  • 김지선 (중원대학교 레저스포츠학과)
  • Received : 2017.03.06
  • Accepted : 2017.06.09
  • Published : 2017.06.30


This study analyzed the influence of Qigong exercise intervention upon a change in glucose, blood lipid, and SFT(senior fitness test) of elderly women and to closely examine the efficacy of a Qigong exercise intervention to promote the health of older women. As research subjects, 24 elderly women aged over 80 were divided into Qigong group(n=12) and control group(n=12), respectively, and the program was carried out for 60 minutes per a day, five times per week for 24 weeks. Data were analyzed using SPSS WIN 20.0, repeated measures ANOVA. The Qigong group had a significantly lower glucose level than the control group. Second, the blood lipid and neutral fat(TG) was reduced significantly in the Qigong group than the control group. The total cholesterol(TC), high-density lipoprotein(HDL-C), and low-density lipoprotein(LDL-C) did not show a significant difference. Third, as for SFT, the leg strength, leg flexibility, and total body endurance were significantly higher in the Qigong group than in the control group. Therefore, Qigong has an influence on the reduction in glucose and neutral fat(TG) and upon the improvement in SFT(leg strength, leg flexibility, and total body endurance) of elderly women, and may show effectiveness as an exercise prescription program for older women.


Qigong;Exercise intervention;Elderly women;Glucose;Blood lipid;SFT(senior fitness test)


  1. Korea National Statistical Office, "2016 Elderly Statistics," 2016.
  2. S. J. Kim, S. J. Kim, "Aging and Motor Performance," Korean journal of physical education, vol. 52, no. 5, pp. 279-289, 2013.
  3. Sherrington, C., Whitney, J. C., Lord, S. R., Herbert, R. D., Cumming, R. G. Close, J. C, "Effective exercise for the prevention of falls: a systematic review and meta-analysis," Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, vol. 56 no. 12, pp. 2234-2243, 2008. DOI:
  4. Siddiqui, N. I., Nessa, A, Hossain, M. A, "Regular Physical Exercise: Way to Healthy Life," Mymensingh Medical Journal, vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 154-158, 2010.
  5. H. C. Cho, J. S. Kim, "The Effect of Gate-ball Games of Body Composition, Blood Lipid in the Rural Elderly Women," Journal of Sport and Leisure Studies, vol. 47 no. 2. pp. 981-989, 2012.
  6. M. C. Lee, Y. J. Jang, "Effect of 12-week aquatic exercise on weight, percent body fat, serum glucose, and serum Lipids on elderly women," Korean journal of physical eduaction, vol. 48, no. 5, pp. 401-409, 2009.
  7. Y. H. Lee, " Effect of 24-weeks Aquatic Fall Rick Reduction Exercise Program on Balance, Physical Fitness, and Body Composition in Elderly Women," Journal of Korean Physical Education Association for Girls and Women, vol. 23, no. 1, pp. 59-70, 2009.
  8. J. Lee., S. S. Ko, J. S. Chung, "Effects of Combination Exercise Program on Functional Fitness and Aging Related Hormone in the Elderly," The Korean Journal of Growth and Development, vol. 20, no. 4, pp. 287-293, 2012.
  9. Nelson, M. E., Rejeski, W. J., Blair, S. N., Duncan, P. W., Judge, J. O., King, A. C., Macera, C. A, Castaneda-Sceppa, C, "Physical Activity and Public Health in Older Adults: Recommendation from the American College of Sports Medicine and the American Heart Association". Medicine and science in sports and exercise, vol. 39, no. 8, pp. 1435-1445, 2007. DOI:
  10. H. K. Sim, M. R. Yoon, "A study on the respiration method of Zhuxi as a life-nurturing method Future and Consilience of Physical Education," Philosophy of Movement : Journal of Korean Philosophic Society for Sport and Dance, vol. 22, no. 4, pp.151-171, 2014.
  11. K. T. Lim, "Danjeon breathing: Sweet saliva and energy," Seoul: Myung Sang. pp. 119-167, 1998.
  12. B. S. Han, "The Study for Appreciation of the Ki-gong Therapy for 20-30 ages people," Alternative Medicine Department Nambu University. 2013.
  13. Wenneberg, S., Gunnarsson, L. G, Ahlstrom, G, "Using a novel exercise programme for patients with msucular dystrophy. Part I : A qualitative study. Disability and Rehabilitation, vol. 26, no. 10, pp. 586-594, 2004.
  14. Leung, Y, Singhai, A, "An examination of the relation-ship between Qigong meditation and personality," Society for Personality Research, vol. 32, no. 4, pp. 313-320. 2004.
  15. Chen, H. H., Yeh, M. L, Lee, F. Y, "The effects of baduanjin qigong in the prevention of bone loss for middle-aged women," The American Journal of Chinese Medicine, vol. 34, no. 5, pp. 741-747, 2006. DOI:
  16. Lee, M. S., Huh, H. J., Jeong, S. M., Lee, H. S., Ryu, H., Park, J. H., Chung, H. T, Woo, W. H, "Effects of Qigong on immune cells. The American Journal of Chines Medicine, vol. 31, no. 2, pp. 327-335, 2003. DOI:
  17. K. S. Hyun., H. S. Kang, W. O. Kim, "The effects of the Danjeon breathing exercise on Physical fittness and Physical Symptoms of women in midlife. Korean Journal of Sports Medicine, vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 1-10, 2003.
  18. M. H. Kim, Y. I. Kim, "The Effect of 24 Weeks Qui-gong Exercise on Functional Fitness and Quality of Life in Middle Age Woman," Journal of Sport and Leisure Studies, vol. 47, no. 2, pp. 877-885, 2012.
  19. K. S. Hyun, "The effect of the Danjeon breathing exercise program applied to health promotion in women in midlife," Unpublished doctoral dissertation. Kyunghee University. Seoul. 2001.
  20. J. S. Seo, "The Effect of Hypogastric Breathing and Meditation Training on Archers 'Physical Balance and Pulmonary Function," Department of Physical Education Graduate School of Education. Keimyung University. 2006.
  21. Lee, M. S., Pittler, M. H., Guo, R, Ernst, E, "Qigong for hypertension : a systematic review of randomized clinical trials," Journal of Hypertension, vol. 25, no. 8, pp. 1525-1532, 2007. DOI:
  22. B. W. An, "An educational Study on the somatic views and the mental and physical Training in the Orient," Department of Physical Education Graduate School of Yong-in University. 2014.
  23. Rikli, R. E, Jones, C. J, "Senior fitness test manual. Champaign", IL: Human Kinetics Publishers, Inc. 2001.
  24. H. J. Hwang, I. S. Lim, "Changes of Vascular Compliance, Blood Glucose, and Lactate Concentration following Submaximal Exercise in Older Women for Hatha Yoga Practice," The Korean Journal of Growth and Development, vol. 18, no. 4, pp. 301-305, 2010.
  25. Pratley, R. E., Hagberg, J. M., Rogus, E. M, Goldberg, A. P, "Enhanced insulin sensitivity and lower waist-to-hip ratio in master athletes," American Journal of Physiology, vol. 268, no. 3/1, pp. 484-490, 1995.
  26. Durak, E, "Exercise for specific populations: Diabetes mellitus," Sports Training, Medicine & Rehabilitation, vol. 1, pp. 175-180, 1989. DOI:
  27. Mayer-Davis, E. J., Agostino, R. J, Karter, J, "Intensity and Amount of Physical Activity in Relation to Insulin Sensitivity: The Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Study," JAMA, vol. 279, no. 9, pp. 669-674, 1998. DOI:
  28. J. H. Oh., H. S. Eum., U. K. Ko, Y. S. Baik, "Aging : Effects of 12 Weeks Combined Exercise Program on the Elderly in Physical Fitness, Blood Pressure and Blood Lipids," The Korean Journal of Growth and Development, vol. 20, no. 3, pp. 199-206, 2012.
  29. K. S. Hyun, "The effects of the Danjeon breathing exercise program on %body fat and levels of serum lipid of women in midlife," Journal of Korean Public Health Association, vol. 29, no. 2, pp. 118-126, 2003.
  30. C. H. Kim, "Effects of habitual aerobic exercise on blood lipids, blood glucose, physical fitness in pre and post-menopausal women," Korean Journal of Sports Medicine, vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 158-168, 1998.
  31. Y. S. Kim., Y. S. Jeong, M. H. Jeong, "The Effects of a Streching Exercise Program in Elderly Women," Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing, vol. 34, no. 1, pp. 123-131, 2004. DOI:
  32. J. B. Park., H. J. Lee, S. T. Jeong, "The effects of stretching and rhythm exercise program on the knee pain of osteoarthritis, blood lipid profile and brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity in elderly," The Korea Journal of Sports Science, vol. 15, no. 2, pp, 451-460, 2006.
  33. K. Y. Sohng., J. S. Moon,, H. H. Song., K. S. Lee, Y. S. Kim, "Fall Prevention Exercise Program for Fall Risk Factor Reduction of the Community-Dwelling Elderly in Korea," Yonsei medical journal, vol. 44, no. 5, pp. 883-891, 2003. DOI:
  34. J. W. Lee, C. W. Jeong, "The Effects of Regular Aquarobics on Instrumental Activities of Daily Living, Body Composition, and Sleep Quality in Elderly Women," Journal of Korean Gerontological of Nursing, vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 11-20, 2011.
  35. S. Y. Hong., Y. K. Lee., I. S. Park, S. L. Seo "A Study on the Effectiveness of Statement analysis of national health insurance corporation of Healthy Support Program," Seoul: Statement analysis of national health insurance corporation. 2008.
  36. K. S. Hyun, J. S. Won, W. O. Kim, S. S. Han, J. A. Lee, "The Effects of Danjeon Breathing Exercise on Vital Capacity, Physical Fitness Anxiety and Depression among Older Adults," Journal of Korean Acad Community Health Nurs, vol. 20, no. 4, pp. 474-482, 2009.
  37. W. J. Choi, "A study of the effect that the practice of Qi-Gong has on controlling one's body weight," Graduate School of Health Science, Nambu University. 2007.
  38. K. S. Hyun, "The effects of the Dan Jeon breathing exercise program on pulmonary function and psychological health of women in midlife," Journal of Korean Academy Nurse. vol. 32, no. 1, pp, 459-469, 2002.
  39. K. W. Kim, "Process of cultivating energy in middle aged women practicing Dan Jeon Breathing. Journal of Korean Academy of Women Health Nursing, vol. 32, no. 1, pp, 174-183, 2007.
  40. H. Cho., J. Y. Yoo., S. H. Park, "A Literature Review of Clinical Trials on Alternative Medicine," The Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society, vol. 11, no. 11 pp. 4395-4403, 2010.
  41. H. J. Lee, "Zhaung Zis's Yangseng(養生) and Role of Exercise Specialist," Journal of Sport and Leisure Studies, vol. 57, no. 1, pp. 187-196, 2014.