DOI QR코드

DOI QR Code

The Relationship between Perceived Social Support and Career Barriers among Out-of school Adolescents preparing for Qualification Examination for High School Degree: Mediating Effects of Alienation

고졸검정고시를 준비하는 학교 밖 청소년들이 지각한 사회적 지지와 진로장벽의 관계 : 소외감의 매개효과

  • Lee, Jung-Lim (Department of Counseling Psychology, The Graduate School of Peace Security & Counseling Psychology, Sangji University) ;
  • Cho, Young-A (Department of Counseling Psychology, The Graduate School of Peace Security & Counseling Psychology, Sangji University)
  • 이정림 (상지대학교 평화안보.심리대학원 상담심리학과) ;
  • 조영아 (상지대학교 평화안보.심리대학원 상담심리학과)
  • Received : 2017.04.14
  • Accepted : 2017.06.09
  • Published : 2017.06.30

Abstract

Recently, the number of out-of-school adolescents has been increasing, and problems associated with their careers have become an important issue. This study was conducted to identify the relationship between the career barriers and perceived social support type/support source and to examine whether a sense of alienation mediates the relationship between perceived social support and career barriers among out-of-school adolescents preparing for the qualification examination for their high school degree. To accomplish this, a survey of 207 students from the Youth Support Center for out-of-school adolescents-K-Dream-and Qualification Examination Institute located in five regions (Seoul, Busan, Jeju, Gangwon, and Jeonla province) was conducted. Correlation analysis, regression analysis and the Sobel test were used to verify the relationships between variables and mediation effects. The results showed a significant negative correlation between social support and career barriers and a significant positive correlation between alienation and career barriers. Carrier barriers and alienation were highly correlated with parent support and evaluation support. Moreover, a sense of alienation was found to fully mediate the relationship between parental support/teacher support and career barriers, as well as to partially mediate the relationship between peer support and career barriers. A sense of alienation was found to fully mediate the relationship between information support/evaluation support/emotional support/material support and career barriers. These findings imply that, in out-of-school adolescents, career barriers can be reduced through various kinds of social support provided by peers, parents and teachers as it decreases the sense of alienation.

Keywords

Career Barriers;Examination for high school Degree;Out-of-school Adolescent;Sense of Alienation;Social Support

References

  1. Education statistics service, Educational statistics annual, 2015, 2, http://kess.kedi.re.kr/index,
  2. C. K. Yoon, J. A. Seo, S. R. Yoo, A. M. Jo, Characteristics of discontinued adolescents and path after discontinuation of adolescent youth panel survey I data analysis report, Korea Youth Development Institute, 1-323, 2014.
  3. H. S. Park, A grounded theory approach on the school dropout of adolescents in korea, Korean Journal of Social Welfare, vol. 53, no. 5, pp. 75-104, 2003.
  4. B. G. Kim, Types and psycho-social characteristics of school dropouts: a latent class analysis approach, Myongji University, Master's Thesis, 2013.
  5. M. J. Keum, Comprehensive understanding about drop-out adolescents in korea, Korean Journal of Psychological and Social Issues, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 299-317, 2008.
  6. B. H. Joen, The relationship among optimism, achievement motivations, and career barriers, and career preparation behaviors of school dropout Adolescents, Keimyung University, Master's Thesis, 2012.
  7. Fitagerald, L., F., Fssinger, R. E., & Betz, N. E, Theoretical advances in the study of women's career development. In W. B. Walsh, & S. H. Osipow(Eds,), Handbook of Vocational Psychology: Theory, Research and practice, Mahwah, Nj:Erlbaum Associates, Publishers, pp. 67-109, 1995.
  8. Shuttleworth, C. L., The effects of perceived barriers on college women's occupational choice(women). Unpublished doctoral dissertation, The Ohio State University, 1992.
  9. K. S. Jeon, Empirical examination and research on the labor condition of the drop out teens, The Korea Journal of Youth Counseling, vol. 14, no. 1, pp.3-21, 2006.
  10. J. H. Kim, A qualitative study on career barriers and career preparation behavior of youth after school dropout, Sookmyung Women's University, Master's Thesis, 2008.
  11. Y. H. Kim, The adjustment experiences of high school dropout youths who chose to take qualification examinations, Journal of Youth Welfare, vol. 17, no. 2, pp.131-157, 2015.
  12. Y. H. Kim, C. S. Huh, Research trends secondary school dropouts: 1991-2011, Korean Journal of Counseling, vol. 13, no. 2, pp. 1013-1028, 2012. DOI: https://doi.org/10.15703/kjc.13.2.201204.1013 https://doi.org/10.15703/kjc.13.2.201204.1013
  13. J. H. Byeon, The Influence of percevied career barriers on career preparation behavior high school students : The moderating effects of social support, Wonkwang University, Master's Thesis, 2012.
  14. T. Y. Um, E. H. Park, E. S. Ju, A study on the influence of self-respect and social support on career decision among low-income adolescents in korea : focusing on the mediation effect of career barrier, Health and Socal Welfare Review, vol. 31, no. 3, pp. 197-222, 2011. DOI: https://doi.org/10.15709/hswr.2011.31.3.197 https://doi.org/10.15709/hswr.2011.31.3.197
  15. Cobb, S, Social support as a moderator of life stress, Psychosomatic Medicine, vol. 38, no. 5, pp. 300-314, 1976. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1097/00006842-197609000-00003 https://doi.org/10.1097/00006842-197609000-00003
  16. E, G. Oh, The difference among social support, career preparation behavior, social exclusion and depression by types of youth who are dropouts of school, Korea Institute of Youth Facility & Environment vol. 12, no. 3, pp. 65-80, 2014.
  17. B. H. Kim, Career decision level and career preparation behavior of the college students, The Korean Journal of Counseling and Psychotherapy, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 331-333, 1997.
  18. O. Kim, The effects of support and career barriers on career preparation behavior of high school students-the mediation effects of career aspiration and career decision self-efficacy. Kangwon University, Master's Thesis, 2012.
  19. S. H. Lee, The role of career barriers and social support in career development : A test of social cognitive career theory(SSCT) and social cognitive theory, Korea Journal of Counseling, vol. 7, no. 4, pp. 1123-1135, 2006.
  20. Mau, R. Y, The validity and devolution of a concept : student alienation. Adolescence, vol. 27, no. 107, 731-41, 1992.
  21. Y. J. Lee, K. H. Kim, H. Y. Min, The relationships between alienation, career barriers, and suicide thought, suicide attempt of high-school students, The Korea Journal of Youth Counseling, vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 69-85, 2008.
  22. K. H. Kim, Impacts of parents-adolescent communication on perceived career barriers of high school students : A mediating effect of adolescent's alienation, Journal of adolescent Welfare, vol. 13, no. 3, pp. 191-213, 2011.
  23. Brofenbrenner, U. The origins of alienation, Scientific American, vol. 231, pp. 53-61, 1976. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/scientificamerican0874-53
  24. Moyer, T. R., & Motta, R. W, Alienation and social adjustment among black and white adolescents. Journal of Psychology, 112, pp. 21-28, 1982. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/00223980.1982.9923530 https://doi.org/10.1080/00223980.1982.9923530
  25. Wynne, E, Behind the discipline problem: Youth suicide as a measure of alienation. Pbi Delta Kappa, 59, pp.308-315, 1978.
  26. E. S. Lee, The Relationship between alienation and social supports in high school students, The Korean Academy of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing, vol. 10, no. 4, pp.496-507, 2001.
  27. H. M. Nam, S. W. Ok, The effects of psychological family environment, self- control characteristics of middle school students on their problem behaviors, Family and Environment Research, vol. 39, no. 7, pp.37-58, 2001.
  28. H. N. Seo, Analysis of relationship between alienation and social support perceived by elementary school students, Chuncheon National University of Education, Master's Thesis, 2008.
  29. Sankey, M., & Huon. G. F, Investigating the role of alienation in a multicomponent model of juvenile delinquency. Journal of Adolescence. 22. pp. 95-107, 1999. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1006/jado.1998.0203 https://doi.org/10.1006/jado.1998.0203
  30. Swanson, J. L., & Daniels, K. K, The career barriers inventory-revised. Unpublished manuscript. Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, 1995.
  31. S. J. Kim, The influence of career barriers, Hope and career decision-making self-efficacy on the career preparation behavior of college students, Hongik University, Master's Thesis, 2005.
  32. K. Y. Kim, A qualitative study on the career barriers of teenage school drop-outs and the supports to them, Jeju University, Master's Thesis, 2012.
  33. Y. C. Lee, Effects of social support on psychological and social adaptation of the school dropout youth preparing of high school degree qualification examination, Jeju University, Master's Thesis, 2015.
  34. J. H. Jun, A study on effect of social support on psychological and social adaptation for high school degree, Seoul Women's University, Master's Thesis, 2005.
  35. Flores, L. Y., & O' Brien, K. M, The career development of mexican american adolescent women : A test of social cognitive career theory, Journal of Counseling Psychology, vol. 49, no. 1, pp. 14-27, 2002. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-0167.49.1.14 https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-0167.49.1.14
  36. S. R. Moon, The effect of social support and resilience of high school students on career decision status : mediating effect of career barrier, Korea University, Master's Thesis, 2016.
  37. J. C. Lee, The relationship between career barriers, social supports and college decision level perceived by general girls' high school students, Chungbuk National University, Master's Thesis, 2015.
  38. D. S. Han, An influence of parental support and barriers on the maturity of elementary school students, Incheon University, Master's Thesis, 2007.
  39. J. U. Kim, H. H. Kim, The mediating effects of career decision making level between social support and career barrier of college students, Journal of Learner-Centered Curriculum and Instruction, vol. 15, no. 2, pp.619-637, 2015.
  40. B. R. Song, J. E. Hwang, K. H. Lee, The relationship among perceived career barriers, self-esteem, and social support of female college students, The Korea Psychological Association, vol. 2008, no. 1, pp. 664-665, 2008.
  41. S. B. You, H. M. Yoon, Effects of career barriers and social support on college student's career self-efficacy and preparation behavior, The Korean Journal of Family Welfare, vol. 19, no. 3, pp. 405-421, 2014. DOI: https://doi.org/10.13049/kfwa.2014.19.3.405 https://doi.org/10.13049/kfwa.2014.19.3.405
  42. H. J. Kim, Relationship between social support, ego-resiliency and stress coping strategies of school-dropout Adolescents, Hannam University, Master's Thesis, 2015.
  43. G. S. Yang, S. S. Chang, A study on the characteristics of the protective factors for school resilience: on vocational high school students, Korean Journal of Counseling and Psychotherapy, vol. 13, no. 3, pp. 127-148, 2001.
  44. J. Y. Lee, S. Y. Kang, H. J. Kim, Y. Y. Lee, E. J. Ynag, Risk and protective factors perceived by school dropouts, Korea Youth Counseling & Welfare Institute, vol. 18, no. 2, pp. 225-241, 2010.
  45. H. Y. Min, The influence of income and emotional closeness with father/mother on middle and high school-adolescent's alienation, Korean Association of Human Ecology, vol. 17, no. 6, pp. 1105-1114, 2008. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5934/KJHE.2008.17.6.1105 https://doi.org/10.5934/KJHE.2008.17.6.1105
  46. G. J. Kim, B. K. Song, The structural analysis of factors influencing youth career aspirations, Korean society for the study of vocational education, vol. 30, no. 2, pp. 91-115, 2011.
  47. H. R. Choi, Moderation effects of dysfunctional impulsivity on the relationship between perceived burdensomeness, thwarted belongingness and suicide behavior in the adolescents out of school, Chungbuk National University, Master's Thesis, 2014.
  48. Maguire, L, Social support systems in practice, I. H. Jang, S. R. Oh, Social support system, Seoul: Institute for Social Work Practice.
  49. J. Y. Hwang, The Relationship between children's percieved marital conflict, peer relationship and children's alienation, Sookmyung Women's University, Master's Thesis, 2007.
  50. E. S. Lee, The influencing factors on alienation in high school students, The Korean Academy of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing, vol. 34, no. 1, pp. 45-52, 2004. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4040/jkan.2004.34.1.45
  51. J. W. Park, A study to development a scale of social support, Yonsei University, Master's Thesis, 1985.
  52. Y. K. Hwang, A study on social-support perceived by adolescent peer-group and psychological Maturity, Ewha Woman's University, Master's Thesis, 1996.
  53. M. H. Hwang, E. S. Lee, S. K. Yoo, Development and validation of the korean career barriers scale for female adolescents suggested, Korea Journal of Counseling, vol. 6, no. 4, pp. 1205-1223, 2005.
  54. M. H, Hwang, A. R. Lee, E. H. Park, Development and validation of the korea career barriers scale for male adolescents, Studies on Korean Youth, vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 125-159, 2005.
  55. W. S. Kang, The relationship between the perceived father's/mother's values, father/mother-student emotional intimacy & father's/mother's over - control and university student's alienation, Seoul University, Master's Thesis, 2000.
  56. Baron, R. M.., & Kenny, D. A, The moderator-mediator variable distinction in social psychological research : conceptual, strategic and statistical considerations, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, vol. 51, no. 6, pp. 1173-1182, 1986. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.51.6.1173 https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.51.6.1173
  57. H. S. Kweon, J. A. Ru, The integrated school-based support model development for the at-risk youth, Korea Journal of Counseling, vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 1205-1221, 2007. DOI: https://doi.org/10.15703/kjc.8.3.200709.1205 https://doi.org/10.15703/kjc.8.3.200709.1205