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Eco-friendly and efficient in situ restoration of the constructed sea stream by bioaugmentation of a microbial consortium

복합미생물 생물증강법을 이용한 인공해수하천의 친환경 효율적 현장 수질정화

  • Yoo, Jangyeon (Department of Convergence Study on Ocean Science and Technology, Korea Institute of Ocean Science and Technology) ;
  • Kim, In-Soo (Department Environmental Engineering, Korea Maritime and Ocean University) ;
  • Kim, Soo-Hyeon (Department Civil and Environmental Engineering, Graduate School of Korea Maritime and Ocean University) ;
  • Ekpeghere, Kalu I. (Department Civil and Environmental Engineering, Graduate School of Korea Maritime and Ocean University) ;
  • Chang, Jae-Soo (Department Environmental Engineering, Korea Maritime and Ocean University) ;
  • Park, Young-In (Division of Public Health and Environment, Kosin University) ;
  • Koh, Sung-Cheol (Department Environmental Engineering, Korea Maritime and Ocean University)
  • 유장연 (한국해양과학기술전문대학원 해양과학기술융합학과) ;
  • 김인수 (한국해양대학교 환경공학과) ;
  • 김수현 (한국해양대학교 대학원 토목환경공학과) ;
  • 칼루 엑페게어 (한국해양대학교 대학원 토목환경공학과) ;
  • 장재수 (한국해양대학교 환경공학과) ;
  • 박영인 (고신대학교 보건환경학부) ;
  • 고성철 (한국해양대학교 환경공학과)
  • Received : 2017.06.09
  • Accepted : 2017.06.21
  • Published : 2017.06.30

Abstract

A constructed sea stream in Yeongdo, Busan, Republic of Korea is mostly static due to the lifted stream bed and tidal characters, and receives domestic wastewater nearby, causing a consistent odor production and water quality degradation. Bioaugmentation of a microbial consortium was proposed as an effective and economical restoration technology to restore the polluted stream. The microbial consortium activated on site was augmented on a periodic basis (7~10 days) into the most polluted site (Site 2) which was chosen considering the pollution level and tidal movement. Physicochemical parameters of water qualities were monitored including pH, temperature, DO, ORP, SS, COD, T-N, and T-P. COD and microbial community analyses of the sediments were also performed. A significant reduction in SS, COD, T-N, and COD (sediment) at Site 2 occurred showing their removal rates 51%, 58% and 27% and 35%, respectively, in 13 months while T-P increased by 47%. In most of the test sites, population densities of sulfate reducing bacterial (SRB) groups (Desulfobacteraceae_uc_s, Desulfobacterales_uc_s, Desulfuromonadaceae_uc_s, Desulfuromonas_g1_uc, and Desulfobacter postgatei) and Anaerolinaeles was observed to generally decrease after the bioaugmentation while those of Gamma-proteobacteria (NOR5-6B_s and NOR5-6A_s), Bacteroidales_uc_s, and Flavobacteriales_uc_s appeared to generally increase. Aerobic microbial communities (Flavobacteriaceae_uc_s) were dominant in St. 4 that showed the highest level of DO and least level of COD. These microbial communities could be used as an indicator organism to monitor the restoration process. The alpha diversity indices (OTUs, Chao1, and Shannon) of microbial communities generally decreased after the augmentation. Fast uniFrac analysis of all the samples of different sites and dates showed that there was a similarity in the microbial community structures regardless of samples as the augmentation advanced in comparison with before- and early bioaugmentation event, indicating occurrence of changing of the indigenous microbial community structures. It was concluded that the bioaugmentation could improve the polluted water quality and simultaneously change the microbial community structures via their niche changes. This in situ remediation technology will contribute to an eco-friendly and economically cleaning up of polluted streams of brine water and freshwater.

Keywords

Flavobacteriaceae;bioaugmentation;microbial consortium;polluted stream;pyrosequencing;restoration;sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB)

Acknowledgement

Supported by : Busan Green Environment Center

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