DOI QR코드

DOI QR Code

Effect of Cold Stress on Carotenoids in Kale Leaves (Brassica oleracea)

저온처리가 케일(Brassica oleracea)잎 내 Carotenoid에 미치는 영향

  • Hwang, So-Jung (Department of Bio-Environmental Chemistry, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Chungnam National University) ;
  • Chun, Jin-Hyuk (Department of Bio-Environmental Chemistry, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Chungnam National University) ;
  • Kim, Sun-Ju (Department of Bio-Environmental Chemistry, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Chungnam National University)
  • 황소정 (충남대학교 농업생명과학대학 생물환경화학과) ;
  • 천진혁 (충남대학교 농업생명과학대학 생물환경화학과) ;
  • 김선주 (충남대학교 농업생명과학대학 생물환경화학과)
  • Received : 2017.06.17
  • Accepted : 2017.06.23
  • Published : 2017.06.30

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Kale (Brassica oleracea) biosynthesizes various phytochemicals including glucosinolates, flavonoids, and carotenoids. Phytochemicals of plants are influenced by light, temperature, carbon dioxide, and growing conditions. Specifically, carotenoids are affected by temperature, light, and oxygen. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of cold stress (day/night: $25^{\circ}C/20^{\circ}C$, $20^{\circ}C/15^{\circ}C$, $15^{\circ}C/10^{\circ}C$) on carotenoids in kale leaves. METHODS AND RESULTS: Kale was grown in pots for up to 50 days after sowing (DAS) in a greenhouse. For cold acclimation experiments, kale grown in growth chambers for 3 days and was subjected to low temperature for 4 days. The conditions maintained in the growth chambers were as follows: photoperiod, 12/12 h (day/night); light, fluorescent; and relative humidity, 60%. Carotenoid (lutein, ${\alpha}-carotene$, zeaxanthin, ${\beta}-carotene$) contents were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The total carotenoid content gradually increased during cold acclimation for 3 days. When kale was subjected to cold stress, the total carotenoid content was high at $25^{\circ}C/20^{\circ}C$ treatment, but low at $15^{\circ}C/10^{\circ}C$ treatment. The total carotenoid content of kale leaves continuously grown in greenhouse decreased from 50 to 57 DAS (1,418 and 1,160 mgkg-1 dry wt., respectively). The lutein, ${\alpha}-carotene$, and ${\beta}-carotene$ contents were very low and the zeaxanthin contents were very high at $15^{\circ}C/10^{\circ}C$ treatment. When kale was subjected to cold stress, the ratio of individual to the total carotenoid contents of kale leaves was 4553% for -carotene and 210% for zeaxanthin. CONCLUSION: The ${\beta}-carotene$ and zeaxanthin contents in kale leaves indicate their sensitiveness toward cold stress.

Keywords

Carotenoid;Cold stress;HPLC;Kale

Acknowledgement

Supported by : Rural Development Administration

References

  1. Alonso-Blanco, C., Aarts, M. G., Bentsink, L., Keurentjes, J. B., Reymond, M., Vreugdenhil, D., & Koornneef, M. (2009). What has natural variation taught us about plant development, physiology, and adaptation?. Plant Cell, 21, 1877-1896. https://doi.org/10.1105/tpc.109.068114
  2. Amorim-carrilho, K. T., Cepeda, A., Fente, C., & Regal, P. (2014). Review of method for analysis of carotenoid. Trends in Analytical Chemistry, 56, 4973.
  3. Chang, S. K., Alasalvar, C., & Shahidi, F.(2016). Review of dried fruits: Phytochemicals, antioxidant efficacies, and health benefits. Journal of Functional Foods, 21, 113-132. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jff.2015.11.034
  4. Cristian, H. A., & Rodriguez, D. B.(2005). Carotenoid composition of kale as influenced by maturity, season and minimal processing. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 85, 591-597. https://doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.1993
  5. Davies, K. J. A. (1995). Oxidative stress: The paradox of aerobic life. Biochemical Society Symposia, 61, 1-32. https://doi.org/10.1042/bss0610001
  6. Demming-Adams, B., & Adams, W. W. (2002). Antioxidants in photosynthesis and human nutrition. Science, 298(5601), 2149-2153. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1078002
  7. Esteban, R., Tleta-Soriano, E., Buezo, J., Miguez, F., Becerril, J. M., & Garcia-Plazaola, J. I. (2014). Enhancement of zeaxanthin in two-steps by environmental stress induction in rocket and spinach. Food Research International, 65, 207-214. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2014.05.044
  8. Fraser, P. D., & Bramley, P. M. (2004). The biosynthesis and nutritional uses of carotenoids.Progress in Lipid Research, 43, 228-265. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.plipres.2003.10.002
  9. Hamazu, Y., Chacin, K., & Ueda, Y. (1998) Effect of postharvest temperatureon the conversion of 14C-mevalonic acid to carotenes in tomato fruit. Journal of the Japanese Society for Horticultural Science, 67, 549-555. https://doi.org/10.2503/jjshs.67.549
  10. Ha, S. H., Kim, J. B., Park, J. S., Ryu, T. H., Kim, K. H., Hahn, B. S., Kim, J. B., &Kim, Y. H. (2003). Carotenoids biosynthesis and their metabolic engineering in Plants. Journal of Plant Biotechnology, 30(1), 81-85. https://doi.org/10.5010/JPB.2003.30.1.081
  11. Ha, S. H., Jeong, Y. S., Lim, S. H., Kim, J. K., Lee, D. H., Lee, J. Y., & Kim, Y. M.(2012). Carotenoid metabolic engineering in flowering plants. Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, 30(2), 107-122. https://doi.org/10.7235/hort.2012.11116
  12. Halvorsen, B. L., Holte, K., Myhrstad, M. C. W., Barikmo, I., Hvattum, E., Remberg, S. F., Wold, A. B., Haffner, K., Baugerd, H., Andersen, L. F., Moskaug, ., Jr. Jacobs, D. R., & Blomhoff, R. (2002). A systematic screening of total antioxidants in dietary plants. The Journal of Nutrition, 132, 461-471. https://doi.org/10.1093/jn/132.3.461
  13. Hong, S. P., & Hwang, J. K. (1998). Biological functions and production technology of carotenoids. Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, 27(6), 1297-1306.
  14. Howitt. C. A., & Pogson B. J.(2006). Carotenoid accumulation and function in seeds and non-green tissues. Plant, Cell and Environment, 29, 435-445. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-3040.2005.01492.x
  15. Iturbe-Ormaetxe, I., Escuredo, P. R., Arrese-Igor, C., & Becana, M.(1998). Oxidative damage in pea plants exposed to water deficit or paraquat. Plant Physiol, 116, 173-181. https://doi.org/10.1104/pp.116.1.173
  16. Krinsky, N. I., & Elizabeth J. J. (2005). Carotenoid actions and their relation to health and disease. Molecular Aspects of Medicine, 26(6), 459-516. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mam.2005.10.001
  17. Krumbein, A., Schwarz, D., & Klaring, H. P. (2006). Effects of environmental factors on carotenoid content in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum (L.) Mill.) grown in a greenhouse. Journal of Applied Botany and Food Quality, 80, 160-164.
  18. Lefsrud, M. G., Kopsell, D. A., Kopsell, D. E., & Curren-Celentano, J.(2005). Air temperature affects biomass and carotenoid pigment accumulation in kale and spinach grown in a controlled environment. HortScience, 40(7), 2026-2030.
  19. Lee, J. H., & Oh, M. M. (2015). Short-term low temperature increase phenolic antioxidant levels if kale. Horticulture, Environment, and Biotechnology, 56(5), 588-596. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13580-015-0056-7
  20. Martnez-Ballesta, M. C., Moreno, D. A., & Carvajal, M. (2013). The physiological importance of glucosinolates on plant response to abiotic stress in Brassica. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 14(6), 11607-11625. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms140611607
  21. Neugart, S., Hans-Peter, K., Zietz, M., Schreiner, M., Rohn, S., Kroh, L. W., & Krumbein, A. (2012). The effect of temperature and radiation on flavonol aglycones and flavonol glycosides of kale (Brassica oleracea var. sabellica). Food Chemistry, 133, 1456-1465. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2012.02.034
  22. Nazia, N., Li, L., Shan, L., Khin, N. C., & Pogson, B. J. (2015). Carotenoid metabolism in plants. Molecular Plant, 8(1), 68-82. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.molp.2014.12.007
  23. Park, S. Y., Choi, S. R., Lim, S. H., Yeo, Y. S., Kweon, S. J., Bae, Y. S., Kim, K. W., Im, K. H., Ahn, S. K., Ha, S. H., Park, S. U., & Kim, J. K. (2014). Identification and quantification of carotenoids in paprika fruits and cabbage, kale and lettuce leaves. Journal of the Korean Society for Applied Biological Chemistry, 57(3), 355-358. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13765-014-4081-5
  24. Sanghera, G. S., Wani, S. H., Hussain, W., & Singh, N. B.(2011). Engineering cold stress tolerance in crop plants. Current Genomics, 12, 30-43. https://doi.org/10.2174/138920211794520178
  25. Schmitt, S., Zietz, M., Schreiner, M., Rohn, S., Kroh, L. W., &Krumbein, A. (2010). Genotypic and climatic influences on the concentration and composition of flavonoids in kale (Brassica oleracea var. sabellica). Food Chemistry, 119, 1293-1299. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2009.09.004
  26. Song, E. S., Kim, H. G., Song, Y. O., Jeon, Y. S., & Cheieh, H. S. (1993). Effect of water activity and light on the oxidation of carrot carotenoids. Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, 25(6), 775-779.
  27. Steindal, A. L. H., Rdven, R., Hanson, E., & Mlmann, J. (2015). Effects of photoperiod, growth temperature and cold acclimatisation on glucosinolates, sugars and fatty acids in kale. Food Chemistry, 174(1), 44-51. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2014.10.129
  28. Stephen, B. K. (1999). ${\beta}$-carotene, carotenoids and the prevention of coronary heart disease. The Jounal of Nutrition. 129, 5-8.
  29. Velasco, P., Francisco, M., Moreno, D. A., Ferreres, F., Garca-Viguera, C., & Cartea, M. E. (2011). Phytochemical fingerprinting of vegetable Brassica oleracea and Brassica napus by simultaneous identification of glucosinolates and phenolics. Phytochemical Analusis, 22(2), 144-152. https://doi.org/10.1002/pca.1259
  30. Voutilainen, S., Nurmi, T., Mursu, J., & Rissanen, T. H.(2006). Carotenoids and cardiovascular health. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 83, 1265-1271. https://doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/83.6.1265
  31. Walsh, R. P., Bartlett, H., & Eperjesi, F. (2015). Variation in carotenoid content of kale and other vegetables: A review of pre- and post-harvest effects. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 63, 9677-9682. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.jafc.5b03691