Sediment Toxicity Assessment of Pesticides using Chironomus riparius Acute and Chronic Effect

Chironomus riparius의 급성 및 만성영향에 의한 농약의 퇴적토 독성평가

  • Park, Jung-eun (Department of Applied Biotoxicology.Department of Pharmaceutical Engineering, Graduate School of Hoseo University) ;
  • Hwang, Eun-Jin (Department of Applied Biotoxicology.Department of Pharmaceutical Engineering, Graduate School of Hoseo University) ;
  • Chang, Hee-Ra (Department of Applied Biotoxicology.Department of Pharmaceutical Engineering, Graduate School of Hoseo University)
  • 박정은 (호서대학교 바이오응용독성학과.제약공학과) ;
  • 황은진 (호서대학교 바이오응용독성학과.제약공학과) ;
  • 장희라 (호서대학교 바이오응용독성학과.제약공학과)
  • Received : 2017.06.12
  • Accepted : 2017.06.23
  • Published : 2017.06.30


BACKGROUND: Pesticides is exposed in an aquatic environment and effected to benthic animals. Especially, sediment-associated pesticides is required for determination of sediment toxicity on aquatic organisms. This study was conducted to evaluate the impact of six pesticides (chlorfluazuron, difenoconazole, dithianon, flufenoxuron, flutianil, pendimethalin) on Chironomus riparius in aquatic ecosystems. METHODS AND RESULTS: Chlorfluazuron, difenoconazole, dithianon, flufenoxuron, flutianil and pendimethalin were used as a model compounds, which have a sediment-associated potential ($K_{oc}$>3). Acute and chronic toxicity tests on Chironomus riparius were performed at six concentrations of each pesticide with four replicates of each based on OECD test guideline 235 and 218. The calculated 48-h $EC_{50}$ values of chlorfluazuron, flutianil, pendimethalin, difenoconazole, dithianon and flufenoxuron were 6.72, 2.55, 2.27, 0.77, 0.30 and 0.11 mg/L, respectively. Flufenoxuron was the lowest 48-h $EC_{50}$ value in this study. The No Observed Effective Concentration (NOEC) and the Lowest Observed Effect Concentration (LOEC) of flufenoxuron for Chironomus riparius in 28-days test were 30 and $60{\mu}g/kg$, respectively. CONCLUSION: Pesticides of the sediment-associated have the potential effect for Chironomus riparius in aquatic ecosystems. Therefore, sediment toxicity assessment of these pesticides should be further investigated to evaluate the impact to benthic organisms.


Supported by : KEITI (Korea Environmental Industry & Technology Institute)


  1. European chemicals agency (2011). Background document to the Opinion proposing harmonised classification and labelling at Community level of flufenoxuron, ECHA/RAC/CLH-O-0000001741-79-01/A1.
  2. Hemond, H. F. & Fechner, E. J. (2000). Chemical fate and transport in the environment, p. 275, second ed. Academic Press, USA.
  3. Kim, B. S., Y. K. Park, S. S. Hong, Y. J. Yang, K. H. Park, M. H. Joeng, S. R. Kim, K. H. Park, W. H. Yeh, D. H. Kim, M. K. Hong, Y. J. Ahn & J. S. Shin (2009). Comparison of acute toxicity of molinate on two aquatic lnsects, Chironomus riparius and Cloeon dipterum in different larval stages. The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science, 13(4), 256-261.
  4. Maund, S., I. Barber, J. Dulka, J. Gonzalez-Valero, M. J. Hamer, F. Heimbach, M. Marshall, P. McCahon, H. Staudenmaier & D. Wustner (1997). Development and evaluation of triggers for sediment toxicity testing of pesticides with benthic macroinvertebrates. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 16(12), 2590-2596.
  5. Moser, H. & J. Rombke (2009). Ecotoxicological Characterization of Waste: Results and Experiences of an International Ring Test. pp. 73-75, Springer Science & Business Media, Germany.
  6. OECD (2004). Sediment-Water Chironomid Toxicity Test Using Spiked Sediment, OECD guidelines for the testing of chemicals. No. 218.
  7. OECD (2011). Chironomus sp., Acute Immobilisation Test, OECD guidelines for the testing of chemicals. No. 235.
  8. Pesticide Properties Data Base (2017)., Accessed 16 May 2017.
  9. Streloke, M. & H. Kopp (1995). Long-term toxicity test with Chironomus riparius: development and validation of a new test system, pp. 49-53, Mitteilungen aus der Biologischen Bundesanstalt fur Land-und Forstwirtschaft Berlin-Dahlem, No. 315, Wiley-Blackwell, Germany.
  10. Tiina Ristola (2000). Assessment of sediment toxicity using the midge Chironomus riparius (Diptera: Chironomidae), pp. 7-9, fifth ed. University of Joensuu, Finland.
  11. Toro, D. M. D., D. J. Hansen, W. J. Berry, R. C. Swartz, C. E. Cowan, S. P. Pavlou, H. E. Allen, N. A. Thomas & P. R. Paquin (1991). Technical basis for examining sediment quality criteria for non-ionic organic chemicals using equilibrium partitioning. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 10, 1541-1586.
  12. Turner J. A. (2015). The Pesticide Manual, pp. 182-183, 341-343, 388-389, 506-507, 546-547, 848-849, 17th edition. British Crop Production Council, UK.
  13. United Nations (2011). Globally harmonized system of classification and labelling of chemicals(GHS), ST/SG/AC.10/30/Rev.4, 223.
  14. Weltje, L., H. Rufli, F. Heimbach, J. Wheeler, M. Vervliet-Scheebaum & M. Hamer (2009). The Chironomid Acute Toxicity Test: Development of a New Test System. Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management, 6(2), 301-307.
  15. Zhou, J. L. and S. J. Rowland (1997). Evaluation of the interactions between hydrophobic organic pollutants and suspended particles in estuarine waters, Water Research, 31(7), 1708-1718.