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In situ analysis of chemical components induced by steaming between fresh ginseng, steamed ginseng, and red ginseng

  • In, Gyo (Korea Ginseng Research Institute, Korea Ginseng Corporation) ;
  • Ahn, Nam-Geun (Korea Ginseng Research Institute, Korea Ginseng Corporation) ;
  • Bae, Bong-Seok (Korea Ginseng Research Institute, Korea Ginseng Corporation) ;
  • Lee, Myoung-Woo (Korea Ginseng Research Institute, Korea Ginseng Corporation) ;
  • Park, Hee-Won (Korea Ginseng Research Institute, Korea Ginseng Corporation) ;
  • Jang, Kyoung Hwa (Korea Ginseng Research Institute, Korea Ginseng Corporation) ;
  • Cho, Byung-Goo (Korea Ginseng Research Institute, Korea Ginseng Corporation) ;
  • Han, Chang Kyun (Korea Ginseng Research Institute, Korea Ginseng Corporation) ;
  • Park, Chae Kyu (Korea Ginseng Research Institute, Korea Ginseng Corporation) ;
  • Kwak, Yi-Seong (Korea Ginseng Research Institute, Korea Ginseng Corporation)
  • Received : 2016.03.04
  • Accepted : 2016.07.12
  • Published : 2017.07.15

Abstract

Background: The chemical constituents of Panax ginseng are changed by processing methods such as steaming or sun drying. In the present study, the chemical change of Panax ginseng induced by steaming was monitored in situ. Methods: Samples were separated from the same ginseng root by incision during the steaming process, for in situ monitoring. Sampling was sequentially performed in three stages; FG (fresh ginseng) ${\rightarrow}$ SG (steamed ginseng) ${\rightarrow}$ RG (red ginseng) and 60 samples were prepared and freeze dried. The samples were then analyzed to determine 43 constituents among three stages of P. ginseng. Results: The results showed that six malonyl-ginsenoside (Rg1, Rb1, Rb3, Rc, Rd, Rb2) and 15 amino acids were decreased in concentration during the steaming process. In contrast, ginsenoside-Rh1, 20(S)-Rg2, 20(S, R)-Rg3 and Maillard reaction product such as AF (arginine-fructose), AFG (arginine-fructose-glucose), and maltol were newly generated or their concentrations were increased. Conclusion: This study elucidates the dynamic changes in the chemical components of P. ginseng when the steaming process was induced. These results are thought to be helpful for quality control and standardization of herbal drugs using P. ginseng and they also provide a scientific basis for pharmacological research of processed ginseng (Red ginseng).

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