The Mediating Effects of Self-efficacy between Metacognition and Learning flow in College Students in Healthcare Field

보건의료분야 대학생들의 메타인지와 학습몰입 간의 관계에서 자기효능감의 매개효과

  • Han, Ju-Rang (Department of Nursing, Seojeong University) ;
  • Kim, Jang-Mook (Department of Health Administration, College of Health Science, Dankook University)
  • 한주랑 (서정대학교 간호학과) ;
  • 김장묵 (단국대학교 보건과학대학 보건행정학과)
  • Received : 2017.04.17
  • Accepted : 2017.06.20
  • Published : 2017.06.28


The objective of this study was to verify the mediating effects of self-efficacy between metacognition and learning flow in college students in healthcare field. Participants were 300 college students. Self-administered questionnaire data were collected from November 21 to December 2, 2016. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, t-test, ANOVA, Pearson correlation coefficients and hierarchical regression analysis with the SPSS/WIN 23.0 program. Results are as follows. Metacognition had positive effects on learning flow(${\beta}=.678$, p<.001). Self-efficacy had a partial mediating effect on the relationship between metacognition and learning flow. The findings of study showed that metacognition was very important for enhancing learning flow and self-efficacy influenced these relationship. This study suggested that it is important to develop and implement teaching and learning strategies with improved metacognition in healthcare field.


  1. J. R. Han, "The Effects of Shared Leadership on Team Performance and Team Commitment of Team-Based Learning in Nursing Students: Mediating Effects of Team Trust." Journal of Digital Convergence, Vol. 14, No. 12, pp. 303-311, 2016.
  2. Y. H. Song, "Identifying predicting variables of the learning flow and the procrastination in university e-learning." Journal of Lifelong Learning Society, Vol. 8, No1, pp. 113-135, 2012
  3. I. B. Suk, E. C. Kang, "Development and validation of the learning flow scale." Journal of Educational Technology, Vol. 23, No. 1, pp. 121-154, 2007.
  4. M. Csikszentmihalyi, "Beyond boredom and anxiety,San Francisco: Jossey-Bass", 1975, Cited by J. H.Kang, "A study of the relations among englishthinking structure, pre-english skill, self-efficacy in english, flow and learning effect." Journal of DigitalConvergence, Vol. 8, No. 4, pp. 165-176, 2010.
  5. M. Csikszentmihalyi, B. Schneider, "Becoming adult: How teenagers prepare for the world of work. NY: Basic Books", 2010.
  6. S. J. Lee, "The effect of flow on learning and self-efficacy on college adaptation and academic achievement in undergraduate students." Korean Journal of Educational Psychology, Vol. 25, No. 2, pp. 235-253, 2011.
  7. M. Csikszentmihalyi, "Flow: The psychology of optimal experience. NY: HarperCollins", 1991.
  8. S. N. Elliott, T. R. Kratochwill, J. L. Cook, J. F. Travers, "Educational psychology: effective teaching, effective learning. 3rd ed. NY: McGraw-Hill", 2000.
  9. J. E. Jacobs, S. G. Paris, "Children's metacognition about reading: lssues in definition, measurement, and instruction." Educational Psychologist, Vol. 22, Issue 3-4, pp. 255-278, 1987.
  10. J. S. Lee, "The relationship between metacognition and learning flow of high school students: the mediating effect of self-directed learning ability." The Journal of Korean Teacher Education, Vol. 26, No. 2, pp. 277-295. 2009.
  11. J. H. Flavell, "Metacognition and cognitive monitoring: A new area of cognitive-developmental inquiry." American Psychologist, Vol. 34, No. 10, pp. 906-911, 1979.
  12. M. H. Kang, Y. H. Song, S. H. Park, "Relationships among metacognition, flow, interactions and problem solving ability in web-based problem based learning." Journal of Research in Curriculum Instruction, Vol. 12, No. 2, pp. 293-315, 2008
  13. P. W. Stewart, S. S. Cooper, L. R. Moulding, "Metacognitive development in professional educators." The Researcher, Vol. 21, No. 1, pp. 32-40, 2007.
  14. H. W. Kim, "The effects of self-instructional training on children's metacognition, attributional style, and task performance level." Ph.D. dissertation, Sungkyunkwan University, 2000.
  15. A. Bandura, "Social foundations of thought andaction: A socail cognitive theory. Englewood Cliffs,NJ: Prentice-Hall Inc." 1986, Cited by S. Y. Lee, Y.Y. Kim, "The effects of self-efficacy andself-directed learning readiness to self-leardershipof nursing students." Journal of Digital Convergence, Vol. 14, No. 3, pp. 309-318, 2016.
  16. M. H. Kim, J. R. Chun, S. A. Hong, "Factors of family function and self-efficasy influencing old patient's decision of advance directives attitude." Journal of IT Convergence Society for SMB, Vol. 6, No. 4, pp. 123-129, 2016.
  17. E. J. Shin, "A study related to self-efficacy, satisfaction with practice and fundamentals of nursing practicum." The Korean journal of fundamentals of nursing, Vol. 15, No. 4, pp. 380-386, 2008.
  18. D. H. Schunk, "Effect of effort attributional feedback on children's perceived self-efficacy and achievement." Journal of Educational Psychology, Vol. 74, No. 4, pp. 548-556, 1982.
  19. Y. S. Park, J. H. Kim, "Daily hassles, self-efficacy, and stress responses of adult learners of distance education in digital convergences Era-based RN-BSN students." Journal of Digital Convergence, Vol. 13, No. 9, pp. 397-407, 2015.
  20. E. J. Yoo, S. K. Kim, S. H. Juong, "A study on stress of college life and self-efficacy on depression among students from beauty-related colleges." Journal of Digital Convergence, Vol. 11, No. 9, pp. 279-287, 2013.
  21. W. Lee, S. H. Kang, "The effect of Jigsaw Program to enhance academic performance self-efficacy." Vol. 22, No. 1, pp. 57-78, 2009.
  22. Y. M. Park, H. J. Ju, "Personality types of nurses and the relation between self-efficacy and clinical performance ability." Journal of Digital Convergence, Vol. 14, No. 11, pp. 333-345, 2016.
  23. E. H. Kim, "A Convergence study about influences of self-efficacy and mindfulness on job satisfaction on general hospital nurses." Journal of the Korea Convergence Society, Vol. 7. No. 5, pp. 107-116, 2016.
  24. J. H. Kim, "An investigation of path model among fifth grade pupils' meta-cognition, self-efficacy, practical intelligence and learning achievement." The Journal of Learner-Centered Curriculum and Instruction, Vol. 7, No. 2, pp. 73-94, 2007.
  25. M. V. Covingston, C. L. Omelich, "An empirical examination of Weiner's critique of attribution research." Journal of Educational Psychology, Vol. 76, pp. 1214-1225, 1984.
  26. D. H. Schunk, "Self-efficacy perspective on achievement behavior." Educational Psychologist, Vol. 19, pp. 48-58, 1984.
  27. P. R. Pintrich, E. V. De Groot, "Motivational and self-regulated learning components of classroom academic performance." Journal of Educational Psychology, Vol. 82, No. 1, pp. 33-40, 1990.
  28. R. J. Sawyer, S. Graham, K. R. Harris, "Direct teaching, strategy instruction, and strategy instruction with explicit self-regulation: Effects on the composition skills and self-efficacy of students with learning disabilities." Educational Psychology, Vol. 84, No. 3, pp. 340-352, 1992.
  29. W. M. Yi, "Effect of metacognition and flow level in learning through educational computer game on problem solving ability." Master's Thesis, Education Korea National University of Education Chung-Buk, 2004.
  30. H. S. Oh, "Health promoting behaviors and quality of life of korean women with arthritis." Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing, Vol. 23, No. 4, pp. 617-630, 1993.
  31. A. Y. Kim, H. Y. Tack, C. H. Lee, "The development and validation of a learning flow scale for adults." The Korean Society Of Educational Psychology, Vol. 24, No. 1, pp. 29-59, 2010.
  32. R. M. Baron, D. A. Kenny, "The moderator-med1ator variable distinction in social psychological research: Conceptual, strategic, and statistical considerations." Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Vol. 51, No. 6, pp. 1173-1182, 1986.
  33. Y. J. Oh, H. Y. Kang, "Metacognition, learning flow and problem solving ability in nursing simulation learning." The Korean journal of fundamentals of nursing. Vol. 20, No. 3, pp. 239-247, 2013.
  34. L. L. Hsu, S. I. Hsieh, (2013). "Factors affecting metacognition of undergraduate nursing students in a blended learning." International Journal of Nursing Practice, Vol. 20, Issue. 3, pp. 233-241, 2013.
  35. S. Y. Kim, H. J. Byun, M. H. Ko, "The effects of achievement goals on undergraduates." Journal of Institute for Social Sciences. Vol. 26, No. 3, pp. 63-80, 2015.
  36. K. J. Ahn, K. H. Kang, "The Relationship among High School Students' Gender, Academic Track, Metacognition and Scientific Attitude." Journal of Science Education, Vol. 38, No. 2, pp. 257-269.
  37. H. S. Chung, K. A. Yu, " Relationship among university students' metacognition, GPA and online notetaking Strategy use." The Journal of the Humanities, Vol. 46, pp. 317-343, 2010.
  38. S. Lee, "Analysis of students' metacognitive skills and academic self-efficacy in physics." Unpublished Master's Thesis, Ewha Woman University, 2015.
  39. H. R. Lee, "The effects of utilizing metacognitive strategy on middle school students' academic self efficacy." Master's Thesis, Yonsei University, 2014.
  40. E. Blackey, S. Spence, "Developing metacognition." Eric Reproduction Services No. ED327218, 1990.
  41. Y. L. Chung, S, O. Kim, "Analysis of Metacognition, Self-efficacy, and Perceptions of the Constructivist Learning Environment in Science for Middle and High school Students." Education research studies, Vol. 162, No. 1, pp. 125-144, 2012.