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유아 교사의 이론과 실천에 관한 고찰: bottom-up 관점을 중심으로

Theories and Practices of Early Childhood Teachers: Bottom-up Perspectives

  • 김미애 (대구가톨릭대학교 유아교육과)
  • Kim, Miai (Dept. of Early Childhood Education, Daegu Catholic University)
  • 투고 : 2017.04.27
  • 심사 : 2017.06.20
  • 발행 : 2017.06.28

초록

본 연구는 문헌연구를 통해 이론과 실천의 관계에서 교수 행위를 바라보는 상반된 두 가지 관점 중 bottom-up 관점에서 유아 교사의 실천을 탐색한다. 연구 결과는 다음과 같다. 첫째, 전통적으로 유아교육에서는 top-down 관점을 중심으로 발달심리학 이론, 발달에 적합한 이론과 실제에 관한 담론, 그리고 발달이론에 근거하여 개발된 다양한 프로그램모델의 틀 안에서 유아교사의 실천과 교수행위를 정의하고 합리화해 왔다. 둘째, 이와 반대로 bottom-up 관점은 현장에서의 교사의 행위와 실천이 이론을 이끈다고 보며 반성적 사고를 통해 교사가 현장에서 실천방법을 구성해 가는데 초점을 둔다. 이 관점에서 실천은 이론의 근거가 되며, 교사는 암묵적 이론을 형성하면서 연구자의 역할을 한다고 보면서 개인경험, 학교풍토와 맥락, 그리고 우세한 교육담론이 교사의 이론을 구성하는 데 영향을 미치는 요소로 본다. 셋째, 실제로 예비교사와 현직교사를 대상으로 하는 연구결과로부터 예비교사는 경험으로부터 오는 교수에 대한 기대가 양성과정에서의 담론과의 교류, 실습 및 학교의 영향으로부터 교수에 대한 이론을 발달시킨다는 것을 보여준다. 또한 현직교사들은 그들이 지닌 암묵적 지식의 전개가 지속적인 전문성 발달과 관련이 있으며 행정적 압력 및 현장의 복잡한 현실적인 문제들을 개인적으로 발달시킨 전략을 사용하여 해결함을 보여준다. 연구 결과에 따라 bottom-up 관점에 근거한 향후 교사 실천에 관한연구 방향과 시사점을 제안하였다.

키워드

유아교사;이론과 실천;신념;교수 행위;bottom-up 관점

과제정보

연구 과제 주관 기관 : Daegu Catholic University

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