The Effect of Fixing Agents and Softner on Sericin Fixation of Trimethylolmelamine

트리메틸올멜라민의 세리신 정착에 있어 정착제와 유연제의 영향

  • Park, Geon-Yong (Department of Fashion Design & Textile Engineering, Chungwoon University)
  • 박건용 (청운대학교 창의융합대학 패션디자인섬유공학과)
  • Received : 2017.02.13
  • Accepted : 2017.05.12
  • Published : 2017.05.31


The fixing behaviors of raw silk yarns treated with melamine and formaldehyde at a molar ratio of 1:3 for trimethylolmelamine were investigated. Sericin was fixed during the fixing process, but a part of sericin I was removed simultaneously by hot water. The weight losses by fixing and the degumming losses by degumming greatly decreased with increasing concentrations of melamine and formaldehyde. The silk yarns fixed with 0.011 M melamine and 0.033M formaldehyde were significantly degummed due to the insufficient fixation of sericin and the alkaline hydrolysis of sericin by sodium carbonate during the degumming process. On the other hand, the silk yarns fixed with 0.055M melamine and 0.165M formaldehyde were degummed slightly (the degumming losses of 3-8%) due to the strong fixation of sericin, which might result from the many cross-linkages between the sericin I molecules, which were formed by trimethylolmelamine. Those fixed with the fixing solution containing 15% owf softener showed the lowest weight and degumming losses because under the condition of 15% owf softener, the cation of the softener can effectively form ionic bonds with the negatively charged side chain of aspartic acid in sericin. In addition, van der Waals' forces may be also formed between the hydrophobic tail of the softener and the hydrophobic region of sericin, which may help inhibit the removal of sericin I.


cross-linking;degumming;fixing sericin;formaldehyde;melamine;silk;trimethylolmelamine


Supported by : 청운대학교


  1. H. Teramoto, A. Kakazu, T. Asakura, "Native structure and degradation pattern of silk sericin studied by 13C NMR spectroscopy", Macromol., 39, pp. 6-8, 2006. DOI:
  2. H. J. Jin, D. L. Kaplan, "Mechanism of silk processing in insects and spiders", Nature, 424, pp. 1057-1061, 2003. DOI:
  3. K. U. Sprange, "Bombyx mori silk proteins: Characterization of large polypeptides", Biochemistry, 14, pp. 925-931, 1975. DOI:
  4. R. Voegeli, J. Meier, R. Blust, "Sericin silk protein: unique structure and properties", Cosmet. Toilet, 108, pp. 101-108, 1993.
  5. G. Y. Park, "A study on the sericin fixation of raw silk fibers by fixing with the mixtures of various amines and formalin", J. Kor. Soc. Dyers Finishers, 21, pp. 67-72, 2009. DOI:
  6. G. Y. Park, "The sericin fixation of raw silk fabrics by fixing with the mixture of melamine and formalin", J. Kor. Fiber Soc., 46, pp.30-34, 2009.
  7. M. Lewin, E. M. Pearce, Handbook of fiber science and technology, pp. 593-658, vol. 4, Dekker, New York and Basel, 1985.
  8. K. Komatsu, "Dissolution behavior and structural characteristic of silk sericin", Bull. Sericult. Exp. Sta., 26, pp. 135-156, 1975.
  9. T. Wang, J. Wang, J. Zhou, "X-ray study on the sericin structure of cocoon silk", Fangzhi Xuebao, 6, pp. 133-134, 1985.
  10. The Key Centre for Polymer Colloids, Australian Research Council's Research Centres Program, Available From: (accessed Jan., 25, 2001)
  11. A. K. R. Choudhury, Textile preparation and dyeing, pp. 759-776, Science Publishers, Enfield, 2006.
  12. R. Nastke, K. Dietrich, G. Reinisch, G. Rafler, H. Gajewski, "The Initial Stage of the Reaction of Melamine with Formaldehyde", J. Macromol. Sci.: Part A, 23, pp. 579-596, 1986. DOI:
  13. A. Berge, T. Mejdell, "Melamine formaldehyde compounds. The active species in acid catalyzed reactions", Polymer, 47, pp. 3249-3256, 2006. DOI:
  14. H. P. Wohnsiedler, "Urea-Formaldehyde and Melamine-Formaldehyde Condensations", Ind. Eng. Chem., 44, pp. 2679-2686, 1952. DOI: