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Effect of Thermal Management of Lithium-Ion Battery on Driving Range of Electric Vehicle

리튬이온 배터리의 열관리가 전기자동차 주행거리에 미치는 영향

  • Park, Chul-Eun (Department of Mechanical-Engeenring, Chungbuk National University) ;
  • Yoo, Se-Woong (Department of Mechanical-Engeenring, Chungbuk National University) ;
  • Jeong, Young-Hwan (Department of Mechanical-Engeenring, Chungbuk National University) ;
  • Kim, Kibum (Department of Mechanical-Engeenring, Chungbuk National University)
  • 박철은 (충북대학교 기계공학부) ;
  • 유세웅 (충북대학교 기계공학부) ;
  • 정영환 (충북대학교 기계공학부) ;
  • 김기범 (충북대학교 기계공학부)
  • Received : 2017.02.13
  • Accepted : 2017.05.12
  • Published : 2017.05.31

Abstract

The performance of lithium ion batteries used in electric vehicles (EV) varies greatly depending on the battery temperature. In this paper, the finite difference method was used to evaluate the temperature change, state of charge (SOC), internal resistance, and voltage change of the battery due to heat generation in the battery. The simulation model was linked with AMESim to calculate the driving range of an EV traveling in New European Driving Cycle (NEDC) mode. As the temperature dropped below $25^{\circ}C$, the internal resistance of the battery increased, which increased the amount of heat generated and decreased the driving range of EV. At battery temperatures above $25^{\circ}C$, the driving range was also decreased due to reduced SOC that deteriorated the battery performance. The battery showed optimal performance and the driving range was maximized at $25^{\circ}C$. When battery temperatures of $-20^{\circ}C$ and $45^{\circ}C$, the driving range of EV decreased by 33% and 1.8%, respectively. Maintaining the optimum battery temperature requires heating the battery at low temperature and cooling it down at high temperature through efficient battery thermal management. Approximately 500 W of heat should be supplied to the battery when the ambient temperature is $-20^{\circ}C$, while 250 W of heat should be removed for the battery to be maintained at $25^{\circ}C$.

Keywords

Driving mode;Electric vehicle;Heat generation;Lithium-ion battery;NEDC;Thermal management

Acknowledgement

Supported by : 충북대학교

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