A Qualitative Study on the Burnout and Secondary Traumatic Stress Experience of Social Workers who Worked in Trauma Centers

트라우마 센터에서 근무한 사회복지사의 소진과 이차적 외상 스트레스 경험에 관한 질적 연구

  • Received : 2017.01.11
  • Accepted : 2017.03.13
  • Published : 2017.05.31

Abstract

The purpose of this study is to develop a substantive theory that understand the burnout and secondary traumatic stress experience of social workers who worked in the trauma centers. This research was conducted by Grounded Theory. The result is as follow: In the initial coding, 159 units of mean, 47 subcategories, and 12 main categories. The central phenomenon of the initial coding was 'the wounded existence.' In the focused coding, the core category was 'seeking to recover professional identity as a social worker.' In the theoretical coding, the burnout and secondary traumatic stress experience of social workers who worked in the trauma centers were classified as four phases;'Commitment to the mission', 'Conflict', 'Stagnant' and 'Disruption'. Based on the findings, the preparation for the disaster social work practice, the perspective on "social healing" of trauma, and the necessity of the mandatory policy or intervention for social workers self-care were discussed.

References

  1. 강방글․한인영․이현정․박정림, 2013, "성폭력 상담사의 대리외상에 대한 주관성 인식 유형 연구", 정신보건과 사회사업, 41(3): 118-147.
  2. 강지희, 2015, "아동상담자의 외상 경험과 이차적 외상스트레스 및 대리 외상에 대한 상담자 변인의 조절효과", 동신대학교 박사학위논문.
  3. 고영빈, 2008, "아동보호전문기관상담원의 2차적 외상스트레스에 영향을 미치는 요인", 이화여자대학교 석사학위논문.
  4. 고주애, 2010, "아동보호전문기관 상담원의 소진 경험에 대한 탐색", 한국사회복지질적연구, 4(1): 5-31.
  5. 공계순, 2005, "아동학대예방센터 상담원의 소진에 관한 연구", 한국가족복지학, 10(3): 83-103.
  6. 권해수․김소라, 2006, "성폭력상담자의 대리외상경험에 대한 질적 연구", 한국심리학회, 18(3): 495-518.
  7. 권해수, 2011, "성폭력상담자의 대리외상 관련 변인 연구: 상담유형, 외상경험, 사회적 지지를 중심으로", 상담학연구, 12(1): 415-430.
  8. 김명희, 2015, "세월호 이후의 치유-제프리 알렉산더의 '외상 과정'논의를 중심으로". 문화와 사회, 19: 11-53.
  9. 김미정․최말옥, 2012, "아동보호전문기관 퇴직상담원의 2차적 외상스트레스에 관한 질적 연구", 사회과학연구, 28(3): 153-183.
  10. 김민선, 2012, "성폭력상담자의 이차적 외상스트레스가 자기위로능력 및 심리적 안녕감에 미치는 영향: 사회적지지의 조절효과", 광운대학교 석사학위논문.
  11. 김윤섭, 2010, "호스피스,완화의료에 개입하는 사회복지사의 소진과 보호요인에 관한 연구", 한국호스피스 완화의료학회지, 13(3): 161-168.
  12. 김홍철, 2016, "클라이언트관련 스트레서가 사회복지사의 소진에 미치는 영향에 관한 연구", 한국사회복지행정학, 18(3: 1-28
  13. 남희은․진혜민․백정원, 2015, "사회복지사 소진 요인에 관한 메타분석", 한국산학기술학회, 26(2): 1045-1053.
  14. 노충래․주한나․손유경, 2008, "개인 및 조직특성과 대리외상이 성매매 피해여성상담원들의 소진에 미치는 영향", 정신보건과 사회사업, 28(4): 265-293.
  15. 민지원․주혜선․안현의, 2016, "재난 자원봉사인력의 소진 양상에 따른 이차외상스트레스와 세상에 대한 신념의 차이", 한국심리학회지: 문화 및 사회문제, 22(3): 363-385.
  16. 박선웅 역, 2007, 사회적 삶의 의미: 문화사회학, Alexander, J. C., 2003, The Meanings of Social Life: A Cultural Sociology, 파주: 한울.
  17. 박윤미․윤혜미, 2011, "외상생존자와 일하는 사회복지사의 소진에 대한 역할갈등, 업무 부담과 이차적 외상 스트레스 및 자기 효능감의 영향", 한국아동복지학, 36: 289-322.
  18. 박지영, 2011, "한국형 이차적 외상스트레스척도(Secondary Traumatic Stress Scale)의 구성타당화 연구", 한국사회복지학, 63(4): 33-57
  19. 박지영, 2013, "외상피해원조실무자의 이차적 외상 스트레스와 소진은 서로 다른가?", 사회복지연구, 44(2): 383-404.
  20. 성희자․권현수, 2013, "사회복지전담공무원의 직무긴장, 소진, 이직의도와의 관계: 민간부문 사회복지사와의 비교를 중심으로", 사회과학연구, 24(3): 361-383.
  21. 신범수, 2004,"아동학대예방센터 상담원의 소진에 영향을 미치는 요인에 관한 연구", 호서대학교 석사학위논문.
  22. 심기선․주혜선․안현의, 2016, "정신건강 전문가의 재난지원활동 여부에 따른 공감만족, 소진, 간접 외상 스트레스: 세월호 사건을 중심으로", 정신보건과 사회사업, 44(2): 113-139.
  23. 엄영숙․장수미, 2014, "아동보호전문기관 사회복지사의 이차외상스트레스 대처과정에 관한 연구-고통속에서 줄탁을 통해 나아가기", 정신보건과 사회사업, 42(3): 63-90
  24. 이명신, 2004, "사회복지사의 소진과정(Burnout Process) 모델 : 직업관련 스트레스 요인, 직무스트레스와 전문직효능성에 의한 소진 경로분석", 한국사회복지학, 56(4): 5-34.
  25. 이명신․양난미․안수영․김보령, 2016, "성폭력 상담원의 소진 결정요인-업무과중, 공감피로, 피해자중심서비스와 이차피해태도", 비판사회정책, 50; 284-333.
  26. 정여주, 2011, "여성폭력상담소 종사자들의 자기효능감과 클라이언트 폭력이 이차적 외상에 미치는 영향연구-대처방식의 매개효과를 중심으로-", 충남대학교 박사학위논문.
  27. 정혜숙․송지연, 2015, "성폭력 피해자를 돕는 사회복지사들의 분투와 성장: 원스톱 위기개입 현장 사회복지사들의 경험을 중심으로", 사회복지연구, 46(4): 137-171.
  28. 최미정, 2015, "특별재난지역에서의 지역사회복지관의 역할 : 재난관리 협력적 거버넌스 관점에서", 중앙대학교 석사학위논문.
  29. 서울시 시민건강국(보건의료정책과-32674), 2016, "서울시 트라우마 치유 클리닉 운영계획", http://opengov.seoul.go.kr/sanction/9962347.
  30. 한겨레신문, 2015, "광복이후 가장 중요한 사건…2040 "세월호" 5060 "한국전쟁", 2015년 1월 1일. (http://mlbpark.donga.com/mlbark/view.php?u=http%3A%2 F%2 Fn ews .naver.com%2Fmain%2Fread.nhn%3Fmode%3DLSD%26mid%3Dshm%26sid1%3D102%26oid%3D 028%26aid%3D0002258965)
  31. Bakker, A. B., Schaufeli, W. B., Sixma, H. J., and Dierendonck, D. V., 2000, "Patient Demands, Lack of Reciprocity, and Burnout: A Five-year Longitudinal Study among General Practitioners", Journal of Organizational Behavior, 21: 425-441. https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1099-1379(200006)21:4<425::AID-JOB21>3.0.CO;2-#
  32. Bell, H., 2003, "Strengths and Secondary Trauma in Family Violence Work", Social Work, 48(4): 513-522. https://doi.org/10.1093/sw/48.4.513
  33. Benbow, S. M., 1998, "Burnout: Current Knowledge and Relevance to Old Age Psychiatry". International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 13: 520-526. https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1099-1166(199808)13:8<520::AID-GPS811>3.0.CO;2-1
  34. Birks, M. and Mills, J., 2011, Grounded Theory: A Practical Guide, CA: Sage.
  35. Bride, B. E., 2007, "Prevalence of Secondary Traumatic Stress among Social Workers", Social Work, 52(1): 63-70. https://doi.org/10.1093/sw/52.1.63
  36. Burisch, M., 1993. "In Search of Theory: Some Ruminations on the Nature and of Burnout", 75-93, in Professional Burnout: Recent Developments in Theory and Research, edited by Schaufeli, W. B., Maslach, C., and Marek, T., Philadelphia: Taylor and Francis.
  37. Canfield, J., 2005, "Secondary Traumatization, Burnout, and Vicarious, Traumatization", Smith College Studies in Social Work, 75(2), 81-101. https://doi.org/10.1300/J497v75n02_06
  38. Charmaz, K., 2014, Constructing Grounded Theory: A Practical Guide Through Qualitative Analysis. CA: Sage.
  39. Cherniss, C., 1993. "Role of Professional Self-Efficacy in th Etiology and Amelioration of Burnout", 135-150, in Professional Burnout: Recent Developments in Theory and Research, edited by Schaufeli, W. B., Maslach, C., and Marek, T., Philadelphia: Taylor and Francis.
  40. Choi, G., 2011, "Organizational Impacts on the Secondary Traumatic Stress of Social Workers Assisting Family Violence or Sexual Assault Survivors", Administration in Social Work, 35(3): 225-242. https://doi.org/10.1080/03643107.2011.575333
  41. Creamer, T. L., and Liddle, B. J. 2005, "Secondary Traumatic Stress Among Disaster Mental Health Workers Responding to the September 11 Attacks", Journal of Traumatic Stress, 18(1): 89-96. https://doi.org/10.1002/jts.20008
  42. Creswell, J. W., 2007, Qualitative Inquiry and Research Design: Choosing Among Five Approaches. CA: Sage.
  43. Denzin, N. K., and Lincoln, Y. S., 1994, Handbook of qualitative research, CA: Sage.
  44. Devilly, G. J., Wright, R., and Varker, T., 2009, "Vicarious Truama, Secondary Traumatic Stress or Simply Burnout? Effect of Trauma Therapy on Mental Health Professionals", Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 43: 373-385. https://doi.org/10.1080/00048670902721079
  45. Figley, C. R., 1995, "Compassion Fatigue as Secondary Traumatic Stress Disorder: An Overview", 1-20, in Compassion Fatigue: Coping with Secondary Traumatic Stress Disorder in Those who Treat the Traumatized, edited by Figley, C. R., NY: Routledge.
  46. Freudenberger, H. J., 1974, "Staff Burn-out". Journal of Social Issues, 30(1): 159-165. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-4560.1974.tb00706.x
  47. Friedman, I., A. 2000, "Burnout in Teachers: Shattered Dreams of Impeccable Professional Performance". Journal of clinical psychology, 56(5): 595-606. https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1097-4679(200005)56:5<595::AID-JCLP2>3.0.CO;2-Q
  48. Gillespie, D. F., and Danso, K., 2010, "Vulnerability: The Central Concept of Disaster Curriculum", 3-14, in Disaster Concepts and Issues: A Guide for Social Work Education and Practice, edited by Gillespie, D. F., and Danso, K., VA: Council on Social Work Education.
  49. Gilligan, R., 2000, "The Key Role of Social Workers in Promoting the Well-being of Children in State Care: a Neglected Dimension of Reforming Policies". Children and Society. 14: 267-276.
  50. Glaser, B. G., 1992, Basics of Grounded Theory Analysis: Emergence Vs Forcing, Sociology Press.
  51. Herman, J. L., 1992, Trauma and Recovery: The Aftermath of Violence: From Domistic Abuse to Political Terror, NY: Basic Books.
  52. Kadambi, M. A., and Truscott, D., 2003, "Vicarious Traumatization and Burnout among Therapists Working with Sex Offenders", Traumatology, 9(4): 216-230. https://doi.org/10.1177/153476560300900404
  53. Kirkcaldy, B. D., Athanasou, A. and Trimpop, R., 2000, "The Idiosyncratic Construction of Stress: examples from medical work settings", Stress Medicine, 16: 315-326. https://doi.org/10.1002/1099-1700(200010)16:5<315::AID-SMI867>3.0.CO;2-T
  54. Knight, c., 2004, "Working with Survivors of Childhood Trauma: Implications for Clinical Supervision", The Clinical Supervisor, 23(2): 81-105. https://doi.org/10.1300/J001v23n02_06
  55. Maslach, C., and Jackson, S. E., 1981, "The Measurement of Experienced Burnout", Journal of Occupational Behavior, 2: 99-113. https://doi.org/10.1002/job.4030020205
  56. Maslach, C., and Leiter, M. P., 1997, The Truth about Burnout: How Organizations Cause Personal Stress and What to Do about It. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
  57. Maslach, C., Jackson, S. E., and Leiter, M. P., 1997, Maslach Burnout Inventory(3th Ed.), Palo Alto CA: Consulting Psychologists Press.
  58. Maslach, C., Schaufeli, W. B., and Leiter, M. P. 2001. "Job Burnout." Annual Review of Psychology, 52: 397-422. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.psych.52.1.397
  59. Mazza, J. J. and Reynolds, W. M., 1999, "Exposure to Violence in Young Inner-city Adolescents: Relationships with Suicidal Ideation, Depression and PTSD Symptomatology", Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 27: 203-213. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1021900423004
  60. McCann, I. L., and Pearlman, L. A., 1990, "Vicarious Traumatization: A Framework for Understanding the Psychological Effects of Working with Victims", Journal of traumatic stress, 3(1): 131-149. https://doi.org/10.1002/jts.2490030110
  61. Meldrum, L., King, R. and Spooner, D, 2002, "Secondary Traumatic Stress in Case Managers Working in Community Mental Health Services",, 85-106, in Treating Compassion Fatigue, edited by Figley, C. R., NY: Brunner-Routledge.
  62. Michalopoulos, L. M., and Aparicio, E., 2012, "Vicarious Trauma in Social Workers: The Role of Trauma History, Social Support and Years of Experience", Journal of Aggression, Maltreatment & Trauma, 21(6): 646-664. https://doi.org/10.1080/10926771.2012.689422
  63. National Association of Social Workers (NASW), 2006, Social Workers as Responders to Disasters. Washington, DC: Author.
  64. Naturale, A., 2007, "Secondary Traumatic Stress in Social Workers Responding to Disasters: Reports from the Field", Clinical Social Work Journal, 35: 173-181. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10615-007-0089-1
  65. Pearlman, L. A., and Mac Ian, P. S., 1990, "Vicarious Traumatization: A Framework for Understanding the Psychological Effects of Working with Victims", Journal of traumatic stress, 3(1): 131-149. https://doi.org/10.1002/jts.2490030110
  66. Pearlman, L. A., and Saakvitne, K. W., 1995, "Treating Therapists with Vicarious Traumatization and Secondary Traumatic Stress Disorders, 150-177, in Compassion fatigue: Coping with Secondary Traumatic Stress Disorder in Those who Treat the Traumatized, edited by Figley, C. R., NY: Routledge.
  67. Pines, A. M. 1993. "Burnout: An Existential Perspective", 33-51, in Professional Burnout: Recent Developments in Theory and Research, edited by Schaufeli Maslach, C., and Marek, T., Washington, D. C.: Taylor and Francis.
  68. Regehr, C., Hemsworth, D., Leslie, B., Howe, P., and Chau, S., 2004, "Predictors of Post-Traumatic Distress in Child Welfare Workers: A Linear Structural Model Equation Model", Children and Youth Services Review, 26: 331-346 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.childyouth.2004.02.003
  69. Rogge, M. E., 2003, "The future is now: socia work, disaster management, and traumatic stress in the 21st century". Journal of social service research. 30(2): 1-6. https://doi.org/10.1300/J079v30n01_01
  70. Schaubend, L. J. and Frazier, P. A., 1995, "Vicarious Trauma: The Effects on Female Counselors of Working with Sexual Violence Survivors", Psychology of Women Quarterly, 19: 49-64. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1471-6402.1995.tb00278.x
  71. Schaufeli, W. B., 2003, "Past performance and future perspectives of burnout research", Journal of Industrial Psychology, 29(4): 1-15.
  72. Sprang, G., Clark, j. j., and Whitt-Woosley, A., 2007, "Compassion Fatigue, Compassion Satisfaction, and Burnout: Factors Impacting a Professional's Quality of Life, Journal of Loss and Trauma, 12:259-280. https://doi.org/10.1080/15325020701238093
  73. Strauss, A. and Corbin, J., 1998, Basics of Qualitative Research: Techniques and Procedures for Developing Grounded Theory(2nd ed), CA: Sage Publications.
  74. Ting, L., Jacobson, J. M., Sanders, S., Bride, B. E., and Harrington, D., 2005, "The Secondary Traumatic Stress Scale: Confirmatory Factor Analyses with a National Sample of Mental Health Social Workers", Journal of Human Behavior in the Social Environment, 11(3-4): 177-194. https://doi.org/10.1300/J137v11n03_09
  75. Townsend, S. M., and Campbell. R., 2009, "Organizational Correlates of Secondary Traumatic Stress and Burnout among Sexual Assault Nurse Examiners", Journal of Forensic Nursing, 5: 97-106. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1939-3938.2009.01040.x
  76. Um, M. Y., and Harrison, D. F., 1998, "Role Stressors Burnout Mediators, and Job Satisfaction: A Stress-strain Outcome Model and an Empirical Test", Social Work Research, 22(2); 110-115.
  77. Wee, D. F., and Myers, D, 2002, "Stress Responses of Mental Health Workers Following Disaster; The Oklahoma City Bombing", 57-83, in Treating Compassion Fatigue, edited by Figley, C. R., NY: Brunner-Routledge.
  78. Yassen, J., 1995, "Preventing Secondary Traumatic Stress Disorder", 178-208, in Compassion Fatigue: Coping with Secondary Traumatic Stress Disorder in Those who Treat the Traumatized, edited by Figley, C. R., NY: Routledge.
  79. Zakour, M. J., 2010, "Vulnerability and Risk Assessment: Building Community Resilience", 15-33, in Disaster Concepts and Issues: A Guide for Social Work Education and Practice, edited by Gillespie, D. F., and Danso, K., VA: Council on Social Work Education.