- Volume 42 Issue 5
DOI QR Code
Energy-Efficient Storage with Flash Device in Wireless Sensor Networks
무선 센서 네트워크에서 플래시 장치를 활용한 에너지 효율적 저장
- Park, Jung Kyu (Seoul Women's University Department of Digital Media Design and Applications) ;
- Kim, Jaeho (UNIST School of Electrical and Computer Engineering)
- Received : 2017.02.15
- Accepted : 2017.05.17
- Published : 2017.05.31
In this paper, we propose a method for efficient use of energy when using flash device in WSN environment. Typical Flash devices have a drawback to be an energy efficient storage media in the energy-constrained WSNs due to the high standby energy. An energy efficient approach to deploy Flash devices into WSNs is simply turning the Flash device off whenever idle. In this regard, we make the simple but ideal approach realistic by removing these two obstacles by exploiting nonvolatile RAM (NVRAM), which is an emerging memory technology that provides both non-volatility and byte-addressability. Specifically, we make use of NVRAM as an extension of metadata storage to remove the FTL metadata scanning process that mainly incurs the two obstacles. Through the implementation and evaluation in a real system environment, we verify that significant energy savings without sacrificing I/O performance are feasible in WSNs by turning off the Flash device exploiting NVRAM whenever it becomes idle. Experimental results show that the proposed method consumes only about 1.087% energy compared to the conventional storage device.
- G. Lawton, "Improved flash memory grows in popularity," J. IEEE Computer, vol. 39, no. 1, pp. 16-18, Jan. 2006.
- G. Mathur, P. Desnoyers, D. Ganesan, and P. Shenoy, "Ultra-low power data storage for sensor networks," J. ACM Trans. Sensor Networks (TOSN), vol. 5, no. 4, Nov. 2009.
- T. Istomin, A. L. Murphy, G. P. Picco, and U. Raza, "Data Prediction + Synchronous Transmissions = Ultra-low power wireless sensor networks," in Proc. 14th Int. Conf. Embedded Networked Sensor Syst., pp. 83-95, CA, USA, Nov. 2016.
- E. Gal and S. Toledo, "Algorithms and data structures for flash memories," J. ACM Computing Surveys (CSUR), vol. 37, no. 2, pp. 138-163, Jun. 2005. https://doi.org/10.1145/1089733.1089735
- N. Tsiftes, A. Dunkels, Z. He, and T. Voigt, "Enabling large-scale storage in sensor networks with the coffee file system," in Proc. IPSN, pp. 349-360, San Francisco, USA, Apr. 2009.
- J. H. Yoon, E. H. Nam, Y. J. Seong, H. Kim, B. S. Kim, S. L. Min, and Y. Cho, "Chameleon: A high performance Flash/FRAM hybrid solid state disk architecture," J. IEEE Computer Architecture Lett., vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 17-20, May 2008. https://doi.org/10.1109/L-CA.2007.17
- J. Kim, J. M. Kim, S. H. Noh, S. L. Min, and Y. Cho, "A space-efficient flash translation layer for compact flash systems," J. IEEE Trans. Consumer Electron., vol. 48, no. 2, pp. 366-375, May 2002. https://doi.org/10.1109/TCE.2002.1010143
- SanDisk, Secure Digital Card Product Manual, Rev. 2.2, 2004.
- Samsung NAND Flash Memory Datasheet (K9F1208U0M), Retrieved Sept. 30, 2016, from http://www.reinerziegler.de/ique/dsk9f1208u0m.pdf.
- S. Nath, "Energy efficient sensor data logging with amnesic flash storage," in Proc. IPSN, pp. 157-168, San Francisco, USA, Apr. 2009.
- I. H. Doh, J. Choi, D. Lee, and S. H. Noh, "Exploiting non-volatile RAM to enhance flash file system performance," in Proc. 7th ACM & IEEE Int. Conf. Embedded Softw., pp. 164-173, Salzburg, Austria, Sept. 2007.
- H. Li and S. Hwang, "An efficient page-level mapping algorithm for handling write requests in the flash translation layer by exploiting temporal locality," J. KICS, vol. 41, no. 12, pp. 1167-1176, Dec. 2016. https://doi.org/10.7840/kics.2016.41.10.1167
- S. Hong and C. Lin, "Design of a multi-protocol gateway system based on low power wireless communications," J. KICS, vol. 40, no. 10, pp. 2006-1013, Oct. 2015. https://doi.org/10.7840/kics.2015.40.10.2006
- J. Hong, J. Kwon, M. Kwon, and H. Park, "Compressed sensing based low power data transmission systems in mobile sensor networks," J. KICS, vol. 41, no. 11, pp. 1589-1597, Nov. 2016. https://doi.org/10.7840/kics.2016.41.11.1589