DOI QR코드

DOI QR Code

Stability and Reciprocal Effects of Abuse and Neglect by Parents and Adolescent Depression and Delinquency

부모의 학대 및 방임과 청소년의 우울 및 비행의 안정성 및 상호적 영향

  • Kim, Minjoo (Child & Family Research Institute, Ewha Womans University) ;
  • Doh, Hyun-Sim (Department of Child Development & Intervention, Ewha Womans University)
  • 김민주 (이화여자대학교 아동가족연구소) ;
  • 도현심 (이화여자대학교 아동학과)
  • Received : 2017.02.28
  • Accepted : 2017.04.12
  • Published : 2017.04.30

Abstract

Objective: This study focused on the stability and reciprocal effects between abuse and neglect by parents and adolescent depression and delinquency. We examined both parent and child effects by adopting the transactional model proposed by Sameroff (2009). Methods: Using autoregressive cross-lagged modeling, data from the $2^{nd}$ to the $4^{th}$ wave of the Korean Children and Youth Panel Study (KCYPS) were analyzed. The sample consisted of 1,982 adolescents who were $8^{th}$ graders in 2011. Data were collected at three different phases: when participants were in $8^{th}$ grade (T1), $9^{th}$ grade (T2) and $10^{th}$ grade (T3). Results: First, the effects of abuse and neglect by parents and adolescent depression and delinquency showed stability from the $8^{th}$ to the $10^{th}$ grade. Second, abuse at T1 and T2 had effects on adolescent delinquency at T2 and T3, respectively, but not on adolescent depression. In terms of child effects, abuse was influenced by adolescent depression only. Adolescent depression and delinquency had no reciprocal effects. Finally, there were reciprocal effects between neglect on one hand and adolescent depression and delinquency on the other. That is, there were child effects as well as parent effects. No significant effects were found in the reciprocal relations between adolescent depression and delinquency. Conclusion: The present study found the stability of abuse and neglect by parents and adolescent depression and delinquency. Furthermore, this study identified the child effects as well as parent effects, thus supporting the transactional model of neglect by parents and adolescent depression and delinquency.

Acknowledgement

Supported by : National Research Foundation of Korea

References

  1. Achenbach, T. M. (1991). Manual for Child Behavior Checklist/4-18 and 1991 profile. Burlington, VT: Department of Psychiatry, University of Vermont.
  2. Anda, R. F., Felitti, V. J., Bremner, J. D., Walker, J. D., Whitfield, C., Perry, B. D., ... Giles, W. H. (2006). The enduring effects of abuse and related adverse experiences in childhood. European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience, 256(3), 174-186. doi:10.1007/s00406-005-0624-4 https://doi.org/10.1007/s00406-005-0624-4
  3. Barbot, B., Crossman, E., Hunter, S. R., Grigorenko, E. L., & Luthar, S. S. (2014). Reciprocal influences between maternal parenting and child adjustment in a high-risk population: A 5-year cross-lagged analysis of bidirectional effects. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 84(5), 567-580. doi:10.1037/ort0000012 https://doi.org/10.1037/ort0000012
  4. Bender, D., & Losel, F. (2011). Bullying at school as a predictor of delinquency, violence and other anti-social behaviour in adulthood. Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health, 21(2), 99-106. doi:10.1002/cbm.799 https://doi.org/10.1002/cbm.799
  5. Brown, J., Cohen, P., Johnson, J. G., & Smailes, E. M. (1999). Childhood abuse and neglect: Specificity of effects on adolescent and young adult depression and suicidality. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 38(12), 1490-1496. doi:10.1097/00004583-199912000-00009 https://doi.org/10.1097/00004583-199912000-00009
  6. Buist, K. L., Dekovic, M., Meeus, W., & van Aken, M. A. (2004). The reciprocal relationship between early adolescent attachment and internalizing and externalizing problem behaviour. Journal of Adolescence, 27(3), 251-266. doi:10.1016/j.adolescence.2003.11.012 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.adolescence.2003.11.012
  7. Carlson, G. A., & Cantwell, D. P. (1980). Unmasking masked depression in children and adolescents. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 137(4), 445-449. doi:10.1176/ajp.137.4.445 https://doi.org/10.1176/ajp.137.4.445
  8. Chen, F. F. (2007). Sensitivity of goodness of fit indexes to lack of measurement invariance. Structural Equation Modeling, 14(3), 464-504. doi:10.1080/10705510701301834 https://doi.org/10.1080/10705510701301834
  9. Clements, M., Aber, J. L., & Seidman, E. (2008). The dynamics of life stressors and depressive symptoms in early adolescence: A test of six theoretical models. Child Development, 79(4), 1168-1182. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/27563544 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8624.2008.01182.x
  10. Coley, R. L., Kull, M. A., & Carrano, J. (2014). Parental endorsement of spanking and children's internalizing and externalizing problems in African American and Hispanic families. Journal of Family Psychology, 28(1), 22-31. doi:10.1037/a0035272 https://doi.org/10.1037/a0035272
  11. Costello, D. M., Swendsen, J., Rose, J. S., & Dierker, L. C. (2008). Risk and protective factors associated with trajectories of depressed mood from adolescence to early adulthood. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 76(2), 173-183. doi:10.1037/0022-006X.76.2.173 https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.76.2.173
  12. Coyne, J. C. (1976). Toward an interactional description of depression. Psychiatry, 39(1), 28-40. doi:10.1080/00332747.1976.11023874 https://doi.org/10.1080/00332747.1976.11023874
  13. Dallaire, D. H., & Weinraub, M. (2005). The stability of parenting behaviors over the first 6 years of life. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 20(2), 201-219. doi:10.1016/j.ecresq.2005.04.008 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecresq.2005.04.008
  14. Desha, L. N., Nicholson, J. M., & Ziviani, J. M. (2011). Adolescent depression and time spent with parents and siblings. Social Indicators Research, 101(2), 233-238. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/41476435 https://doi.org/10.1007/s11205-010-9658-8
  15. Ferreiro, F., Wichstrom, L., Seoane, G., & Senra, C. (2014). Reciprocal associations between depressive symptoms and disordered eating among adolescent girls and boys: A multiwave, prospective study. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 42(5), 803-812. doi:10.1007/s10802-013-9833-x https://doi.org/10.1007/s10802-013-9833-x
  16. Gershoff, E. T., Lansford, J. E., Sexton, H. R., Davis-Kean, P., & Sameroff, A. J. (2012). Longitudinal links between spanking and children's externalizing behaviors in a national sample of White, Black, Hispanic, and Asian American families. Child Development, 83(3), 838-843. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8624.2011.01732.x https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8624.2011.01732.x
  17. Hipwell, A., Keenan, K., Kasza, K., Loeber, R., Stouthamer-Loeber, M., & Bean, T. (2008). Reciprocal influences between girls' conduct problems and depression, and parental punishment and warmth: A six year prospective analysis. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 36(5), 663-677. doi:10.1007/s10802-007-9206-4 https://doi.org/10.1007/s10802-007-9206-4
  18. Hirsch, B. J., & DuBois, D. L. (1992). The relation of peer social support and psychological symptomatology during the transition to junior high school: A two-year longitudinal analysis. American Journal of Community Psychology, 20(3), 333-347. doi:10.1007/BF00937913 https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00937913
  19. Hofstra, M. B., van der Ende, J., & Verhulst, F. C. (2000). Continuity and change of psychopathology from childhood into adulthood: A 14-year follow-up study. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 39(7), 850-858. doi:10.1097/00004583-200007000-00013 https://doi.org/10.1097/00004583-200007000-00013
  20. Keijsers, L., Branje, S., Hawk, S. T., Schwartz, S. J., Frijns, T., Koot, H. M., . . . Meeus, W. (2012). Forbidden friends as forbidden fruit: Parental supervision of friendships, contact with deviant peers, and adolescent delinquency. Child Development, 83(2), 651-666. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8624.2011.01701.x https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8624.2011.01701.x
  21. Kerr, M., Stattin, H., & Burk, W. J. (2010). A reinterpretation of parental monitoring in longitudinal perspective. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 20(1), 39-64. doi:10.1111/j.1532-7795.2009.00623.x https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1532-7795.2009.00623.x
  22. Kerr, M., Stattin, H., & Pakalniskiene, V. (2008). Parents react to adolescent problem behaviors by worrying more and monitoring less. In M. Kerr, H. Stattin & R. C. M. E. Engels (Eds.), What can parents do?: New insights into the role of parents in adolescent problem behavior (pp. 91-112). Chichester: John Wiley & Sons.
  23. Kessler, R. C., Avenevoli, S., & Merikangas, K. R. (2001). Mood disorders in children and adolescents: An epidemiologic perspective. Biological Psychiatry, 49(12), 1002-1014. doi:10.1016/S0006-3223(01)01129-5 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0006-3223(01)01129-5
  24. Kiesner, J. (2002). Depressive symptoms in early adolescence: Their relations with classroom problem behavior and peer status. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 12(4), 463-478. doi:10.1111/1532-7795.00042 https://doi.org/10.1111/1532-7795.00042
  25. Lilienfeld, S. O. (2003). Comorbidity between and within childhood externalizing and internalizing disorders: Reflections and directions. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 31(3), 285-291. doi:10.1023/A:1023229529866 https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1023229529866
  26. Little, T. D., Cunningham, W. A., Shahar, G., & Widaman, K. F. (2002). To parcel or not to parcel: Exploring the question, weighing the merits. Structural Equation Modeling, 9(2), 151-173. doi:10.1207/S15328007SEM0902_1 https://doi.org/10.1207/S15328007SEM0902_1
  27. Logan-Greene, P., & Jones, A. S. (2015). Chronic neglect and aggression/ delinquency: A longitudinal examination. Child Abuse and Neglect, 45, 9-20. doi:10.1016/j.chiabu.2015.04.003 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chiabu.2015.04.003
  28. Mallett, C. A., Stoddard Dare, P., & Seck, M. M. (2009). Predicting juvenile delinquency: The nexus of childhood maltreatment, depression and bipolar disorder. Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health, 19(4), 235-246. doi:10.1002/cbm.737 https://doi.org/10.1002/cbm.737
  29. McGue, M., Elkins, I., Walden, B., & Iacono, W. G. (2005). Perceptions of the parent-adolescent relationship: A longitudinal investigation. Developmental Psychology, 41(6), 971-984. doi:10.1037/0012-1649.41.6.971 https://doi.org/10.1037/0012-1649.41.6.971
  30. Mills, R., Scott, J., Alati, R., O'Callaghan, M., Najman, J. M., & Strathearn, L. (2013). Child maltreatment and adolescent mental health problems in a large birth cohort. Child Abuse and Neglect, 37(5), 292-302. doi:10.1016/j.chiabu.2012.11.008 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chiabu.2012.11.008
  31. Newsom, J. T. (2015). Longitudinal structural equation modeling: A comprehensive introduction. New York: Routledge. doi:10.1080/10705511.2016.1202772
  32. Patterson, G. R. (1982). Coercive family process. Eugene, OR: Castalia.
  33. Patterson, G. R., & Stouthamer-Loeber, M. (1984). The correlation of family management practices and delinquency. Child Development, 55(4), 1299-1307. doi:10.2307/1129999 https://doi.org/10.2307/1129999
  34. Patterson, G. R., & Yoerger, K. (1993). Developmental models for delinquent behavior. In S. Hodgins (Ed.), Mental disorder and crime (pp. 140-172). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
  35. Reitz, E., Dekovic, M., Meijer, A. M., & Engels, R. C. (2006). Longitudinal relations among parenting, best friends, and early adolescent problem behavior: Testing bidirectional effects. The Journal of Early Adolescence, 26(3), 272-295. doi:10.1177/0272431606288591 https://doi.org/10.1177/0272431606288591
  36. Ritakallio, M., Koivisto, A., Pahlen, B., Pelkonen, M., Marttunen, M., & Kaltiala-Heino, R. (2008). Continuity, comorbidity and longitudinal associations between depression and antisocial behaviour in middle adolescence: A 2-year prospective follow-up study. Journal of Adolescence, 31(3), 355-370. doi:10.1016/j.adolescence.2007.06.006 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.adolescence.2007.06.006
  37. Salihovic, S., Kerr, M., Ozdemir, M., & Pakalniskiene, V. (2012). Directions of effects between adolescent psychopathic traits and parental behavior. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 40(6), 957-969. doi:10.1007/s10802-012-9623-x https://doi.org/10.1007/s10802-012-9623-x
  38. Sameroff, A. J. (2009). The transactional model. In A. J. Sameroff (Ed.), The transactional model of development: How children and contexts shape each other (pp. 3-21). Washington: American Psychological Association.
  39. Sameroff, A. J., & Chandler, M. J. (1975). Reproductive risk and the continuum of caretaking casualty. In F. D. Horowitz, M. Hetherington, S. Scarr-Salapatek, & G. Sigel (Eds.), Review of child development research (Vol. 4, pp. 187-244). Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.
  40. Sheehan, M. J., & Watson, M. W. (2008). Reciprocal influences between maternal discipline techniques and aggression in children and adolescents. Aggressive Behavior, 34(3), 245-255. doi:10.1002/ab.20241 https://doi.org/10.1002/ab.20241
  41. Sheidow, A. J., Strachan, M. K., Minden, J. A., Henry, D. B., Tolan, P. H., & Gorman-Smith, D. (2008). The relation of antisocial behavior patterns and changes in internalizing symptoms for a sample of inner-city youth: Comorbidity within a developmental framework. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 37(7), 821-829. doi:10.1007/s10964-007-9265-4 https://doi.org/10.1007/s10964-007-9265-4
  42. Shelton, K. H., & Harold, G. T. (2008). Interparental conflict, negative parenting, and children's adjustment: Bridging links between parents' depression and children's psychological distress. Journal of Family Psychology, 22(5), 712-724. doi:10.1037/a0013515 https://doi.org/10.1037/a0013515
  43. Slesnick, N., & Waldron, H. B. (1997). Interpersonal problem-solving interactions of depressed adolescents and their parents. Journal of Family Psychology, 11(2), 234-245. doi:10.1037/0893-3200.11.2.234 https://doi.org/10.1037/0893-3200.11.2.234
  44. Stice, E., & Barrera, M. (1995). A longitudinal examination of the reciprocal relations between perceived parenting and adolescents' substance use and externalizing behaviors. Developmental Psychology, 31(2), 322-334. doi:10.1037/0012-1649.31.2.322 https://doi.org/10.1037/0012-1649.31.2.322
  45. Vandenberg, R. J., & Lance, C. E. (2000). A review and synthesis of the measurement invariance literature: Suggestions, practices, and recommendations for organizational research. Organizational Research Methods, 3(1), 4-70. doi:10.1177/109442810031002 https://doi.org/10.1177/109442810031002
  46. Verboom, C. E., Sijtsema, J. J., Verhulst, F. C., Penninx, B. W. J. H., & Ormel, J. (2014). Longitudinal associations between depressive problems, academic performance, and social functioning in adolescent boys and girls. Developmental Psychology, 50(1), 247-257. doi:10.1037/a0032547 https://doi.org/10.1037/a0032547
  47. Vieno, A., Kiesner, J., Pastore, M., & Santinello, M. (2008). Antisocial behavior and depressive symptoms: Longitudinal and concurrent relations. Adolescence, 43(171), 649-660.
  48. Vuchinich, S., Bank, L., & Patterson, G. R. (1992). Parenting, peers, and the stability of antisocial behavior in preadolescent boys. Developmental Psychology, 28(3), 510-521. doi:10.1037/0012-1649.28.3.510 https://doi.org/10.1037/0012-1649.28.3.510
  49. Wang, M., & Kenny, S. (2014). Longitudinal links between fathers' and mothers' harsh verbal discipline and adolescents' conduct problems and depressive symptoms. Child Development, 85(3), 908-923. doi:10.1111/cdev.12143 https://doi.org/10.1111/cdev.12143
  50. Wolock, I., & Horowitz, B. (1984). Child maltreatment as a social problem: The neglect of neglect. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 54(4), 530-543. doi:10.1111/j.1939-0025.1984.tb01524.x https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1939-0025.1984.tb01524.x
  51. Bae, H.-O. (2007). Life table method and multi-variate survival analysis of child maltreatment recurrence by abuse type. Journal of Korean Council for Children's Rights, 11(3), 389-411. Retrieved from http://www.riss.kr/link?id=A77015742
  52. Cho, C. B., & Kim, D. K. (2010). The longitudinal relationship between depression and self-esteem in adolescents adapting the autoregressive cross-lagged model. Journal of Adolescent Welfare, 12(4), 207-229. Retrieved from http://www.riss.kr/link?id=A82461791
  53. Cho, E. S. (2010). Testing the autoregressive cross-lagged effects among adolescent depression, parent-adolescent communication, emotional clarity (Master's thesis). Retrieved from http://www.riss.kr/link?id=T12141490
  54. Choi, J.-A. (2010). The reciprocal causation between delinquency and depression during early adolescence: Testing autoregressive cross-lagged effects. Studies on Korean Youth, 21(4), 143-169. Retrieved from http://www.riss.kr/link?id=A82451654
  55. Hong, M., & Kim, H. J. (2007). Child abuse and neglect: Current situation and policy measures. Health and Welfare Policy Forum, 128, 47-59. Retrieved from http://www.riss.kr/link?id=A82450292
  56. Huh, M. Y. (1999). The study for the development and validation of parenting behavior inventory perceived by adolescent (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from http://www.riss.kr/link?id=T10397901
  57. Jeon, Y.-S. (2002). A study on the relationship between parental discipline and delinquency. Korean Criminological Review, 49, 89-121. Retrieved from http://www.riss.kr/link?id=A82525722
  58. Jin, H.-M., & Bae, S.-W. (2012). A meta-analysis on the variables related with juvenile delinquency. Journal of Adolescent Welfare, 14(2), 193-221. Retrieved from http://www.riss.kr/link?id=A60130311
  59. Kim, J. [Jeonghwa]. (2013). The relationship between family strengths, school life healths and stress in the middle school students. Journal of Adolescent Welfare, 15(3), 129-148. Retrieved from http://www.riss.kr/link?id=A99800894
  60. Kim, J. [Joohan]., Kim, M. K., & Hong, S. H. (2009). Writing articles using structural equation modeling. Seoul: Communication Books.
  61. Kim, J.-C., & Choi, J.-Y. (2011). The influence of child abuse by parents on child aggression: The mediating effect of self-esteem and victimization. The Journal of Child Education, 20(1), 19-32. Retrieved from http://www.riss.kr/link?id=A82510641
  62. Kim, J.-H., & Jung, H.-W. (2009). Testing the autoregressive cross-lagged effects between parent attachment and delinquency: Multigroup analysis across gender. Korean Criminological Review, 20(2), 125-148. Retrieved from http://www.riss.kr/link?id=A82526254
  63. Kim, J. H., & Lee, D. W. (1995). A study on the juvenile delinquency scales in Korea (KIC Publication No. 95-01). Retrieved from https://www.kic.re.kr
  64. Kim, J. S. (2006). The analysis of relations between juvenile delinquency and criminal risk. Korean Criminal Psychology Review, 2(2), 175-202. Retrieved from http://www.riss.kr/link?id=A76443640
  65. Kim, J.-Y., & Lee, I.-S. (2008). A study on the effect of behavioral maladjustment of youth experiencing domestic violence in urban and rural areas: Moderating effect of protective factors. Korean Journal of Victimology, 16(1), 199-228. Retrieved from http://www.riss.kr/link?id=A82446782
  66. Kim, K. I., Kim, J. H., & Won, H. T. (1984). Korean Manual of Symptom Checklist-90-Revision. Seoul: Jungangjeokseong.
  67. Kim, S. W. (2003). The effect of social support on abused children's adjustment (Master's thesis). Retrieved from http://www.riss.kr/link?id=T8876131
  68. Korean Ministry of Health and Welfare. (2016). The review of the state of child abuse 2015 (KMHW Publication No. 11-1352000-000025-10). Retrieved from http://www.mohw.go.kr
  69. Kwon, S. W., Lee, D.-E., Jang, E.-H., & Han, K.-J. (2013). The effect of experiences of school violence victimization in middle school on suicidal ideation among high school students: The mediating effect of depression. Korean Journal of Youth Studies, 20(11), 205-231. Retrieved from http://www.riss.kr/link?id=A99871604
  70. Lee, E. (2011). The reciprocal relationships between internalizing and externalizing behavioral problems: Parenting as a mediator, predictor, and its consequences. The Korean Journal of the Human Development, 18(1), 21-41. Retrieved from http://www.riss.kr/link?id=A82633200
  71. Lee, J.-Y., & Oh, K. J. (2011). Examination of the temporal developmental relationship between adolescents' depression and delinquency by autoregressive cross-lagged model: Multiple group analysis across gender. The Korean Journal of Clinical Psychology, 30(2), 497-518. Retrieved from http://www.riss.kr/link?id=A100627563 https://doi.org/10.15842/kjcp.2011.30.2.008
  72. Lee, S. [Sangmoon]. (2013). The developmental processes of delinquent behavior: Testing Thornberry's interactional model. Studies on Korean Youth, 24(3), 221-258. Retrieved from http://www.riss.kr/link?id=A99757647
  73. Lee, S. [Soonhee]., & Hoe, M. (2015). The analysis of longitudinal causal relationship between depression and delinquency in adolescents. Journal of Youth Welfare, 17(2), 241-264. Retrieved from http://www.riss.kr/link?id=A100574234
  74. Lee, S.-G. (2012). Longitudinal analysis on the relationship between parenting behaviors and delinquent behaviors in adolescence. Korean Journal of Family Social Work, 36, 157-185. Retrieved from http://www.riss.kr/link?id=A60129010
  75. Lee, S.-G., & Chung, H.-J. (2013). Longitudinal analysis on the relationships between parenting behaviors and school violence. Journal of School Social Work, 24, 1-29. Retrieved from http://www.riss.kr/link?id=A99623540
  76. Lee, S.-S. (2007). Low self-control, delinquent peers, and juvenile delinquency: A test of panel data. Studies on Korean Youth, 18(2), 159-181. Retrieved from http://www.riss.kr/link?id=A75090198
  77. Lee, W. H., & Hwang, S. H. (2016). Comparative study of social learning and general strain theories using latent growth curve modeling. The Korean Association of Police Science Review, 59, 91-111. Retrieved from http://www.riss.kr/link?id=A102083774
  78. Lim, S. A. (2015). Effects of child maltreatment on delinquency by the mediation role of psychosocial adaptation: Moderating effect of family income. Journal of the Korean Society of Child Welfare, 50, 85-108. Retrieved from http://www.riss.kr/link?id=A100682203
  79. National Youth Policy Institute. (2014). Korean children and youth panel survey 1-3th wave [Data file and codebook]. Retrieved from http://archive.nypi.re.kr/
  80. Park, J.-Y. (2010). The differences between middle school student and high school student where child abuse have effects on adolescent suicide. Korean Journal of Family Social Work, 28, 61-92. Retrieved from http://www.riss.kr/link?id=A79693811
  81. Park, Y. J., & Sung, H. J. (2014). The impact of abuse experience from caregivers on children's school adjustment: Focusing on the mediating effects of depression and aggression. Journal of the Korean Society of Child Welfare, 46, 85-114. Retrieved from http://www.riss.kr/link?id=A100053567
  82. Yoon, H. M. (1997). The impact of child abuse and neglect on the child-parent relationship and self esteem perceived by children. Journal of the Korean Society of Child Welfare, 5(1), 95-120. Retrieved from http://www.riss.kr/link?id=A3066621
  83. Yun, J.-S., Yoo, S.-K., & Hong, S.-H. (2012). Testing the autoregressive cross-lagged effects between working alliance and outcome in the early phase of counseling. Korean Journal of Counseling, 13(4), 1903-1919. Retrieved from http://www.riss.kr/link?id=A100179445 https://doi.org/10.15703/kjc.13.4.201208.1903