- Volume 23 Issue 5
DOI QR Code
Ambient vibration testing and seismic performance of precast I beam bridges on a high-speed railway line
- Toydemir, Burak (Istanbul Gelisim University, Gelisim Vocational School) ;
- Kocak, Ali (Yildiz Technical University, Department of Civil Engineering) ;
- Sevim, Baris (Yildiz Technical University, Department of Civil Engineering) ;
- Zengin, Basak (Yildiz Technical University, Department of Civil Engineering)
- Received : 2016.04.25
- Published : 2017.04.10
In this study, the seismic performance levels of four bridges are determined using finite element modeling based on ambient vibration testing. The study includes finite element modeling, analytical modal analyses, ambient vibration testing and earthquake analyses of the bridges. For the purpose, four prestressed precast I beam bridges that were constructed for the Ankara-Sivas high speed railway line are selected for analytical and experimental studies. In the study, firstly a literature review related to the dynamic behavior of bridges especially precast beam bridges is given and then the formulation part related to ambient vibration testing and structural performance according to Turkish Seismic Code (2007) is presented. Next, 3D finite element models of the bridge are described and modeled using LARSA 4D software, and analytical dynamic characteristics are obtained. Then ambient vibration testing conducted on the bridges under natural excitations and experimental natural frequencies are estimated. Lastly, time history analyses of the bridges under the 1999 Kocaeli, 1992 Erzincan, and 1999 Duzce Earthquakes are performed and seismic performance levels according to TSC2007 are determined. The results show that the damage on the bridges is all under the minimum damage limit which is in the minimum damage region under all three earthquakes.
ambient vibration testing;dynamic characteristic;finite element modeling;precast I beam bridge;seismic performance level
Supported by : Yildiz Technical University
- Altunisik, A.C., Bayraktar, A., Sevim, B. and Ates, S. (2011a), "Ambient vibration based seismic evaluation of isolated Gulburnu highway bridge", Soil Dyn. Earthq. Eng., 31(11), 1496-1510. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.soildyn.2011.05.020
- Altunisik, A.C., Bayraktar, A., Sevim, B. and Ozdemir, H. (2011b), "Experimental and analytical system identification of eynel arch type steel highway bridge", J. Constr. Steel Res., 67(12), 1912-1921. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcsr.2011.06.008
- ARTEMIS (2014), Structural Vibration Solutions A/S; Version 3, Aalborg East Denmark.
- Asr, A.A., Javadi, A.A., Johari, A. and Chen, Y. (2014), "Lateral load bearing capacity modelling of piles in cohesive soils in undrained conditions: An intelligent evolutionary approach", Appl. Soft Comput., 24, 822-828. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.asoc.2014.07.027
- Bathe, K.J. (1996), Finite Element Procedures in Engineering Analysis, Prentice-Hall, NJ, USA.
- Bayraktar, A., Altunisik, A.C., Sevim, B., Turker, T., Domanic, A. and Tas, Y. (2009), "Vibration characteristics of Komurhan highway bridge constructed with balanced cantilever method", J. Perform. Constr. Facil., 23(2), 90-99. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)0887-3828(2009)23:2(90)
- Bendat, J. and Piersol, A. (1986), Random Data: Analysis and Measurement Procedures, (2nd Edition), John Wiley and Sons, USA.
- Bendat, J.S. and Piersol, A.G. (2004), Random Data: Analysis and Measurement Procedures, John Wiley and Sons, USA.
- Brincker, R., Zhang, L. and Andersen, P. (2000), "Modal identification from ambient responses using frequency domain decomposition", Proceedings of the 18th International Modal Analysis Conference, San Antonio, TX, USA, February.
- Brincker, R., Ventura, C.E. and Andersen, P. (2003), "Why outputonly modal testing is a desirable tool for a wide range of practical applications", Proceedings of the 21st International Modal Analysis Conference (IMAC), Kissimmee, FL, USA, February.
- Butterworth, S. (1930), "On the theory of filter amplifiers", Wireless Engineer, 7(6), 536-541.
- Caetano, E. (2000), "Dynamic of cable-stayed bridges: Experimental assessment of cable-structure Interaction", Ph.D. Dissertation; Engineering Faculty of University of Porto, Portugal.
- Camara, A. and Astiz, M.A. (2012), "Pushover analysis for the seismic response prediction of cable-stayed bridges under multidirectional excitation", Eng. Struct., 41, 444-455. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.engstruct.2012.03.059
- Casas, J.R. and Chambi, J.L. (2014), "Partial safety factors for CFRP-wrapped bridge piers: Model assessment and calibration", Compos. Struct., 118, 267-283. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compstruct.2014.07.032
- Catalan, A., Climent, A.B. and Cahis, X. (2010), "Selection and scaling of earthquake records in assessment of structures in lowto-moderate seismicity zones", Soil Dyn. Earthq. Eng., 30(1-2), 40-49. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.soildyn.2009.09.003
- Chopra, A.K. (2006), Dynamics of Structures: Theory and Applications to Earthquake Engineering, (Third Edition), Prentice Hall, USA.
- Dawood, H.M. and ElGawady, M. (2013), "Performance-based seismic design of unbonded precast post-tensioned concrete filled GFRP tube piers", Compos. Part B: Eng., 44(1), 357-367. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compositesb.2012.04.065
- URL (2015), http://www.deprem.gov.tr/en/home; AFAD, Republic Of Turkey Prime Ministry Disaster & Emergency Management Authority Earthquake Department, Ankara, Turkey.
- Dwairi, H.M., Wagner, M.C., Kowalsky, M.J. and Zia, P. (2010), "Behavior of instrumented prestressed high performance concrete bridge girders", Constr. Build. Mater., 24(11), 2294-2311. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2010.04.026
- El-Gawady, M.A. and Dawood, H.M. (2012), "Analysis of segmental piers consisted of concrete filled FRP tubes", Eng. Struct., 38, 142-152. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.engstruct.2012.01.001
- Gentile, C. and Bernardini, G. (2008), "Output-only modal identification of a reinforced concrete bridge from radar-based measurements", NDT&E International, 71(7), 544-553.
- Ghosh, G. and Singh, Y. (2011), "Thakkar SK. Seismic response of a continuous bridge with bearing protection devices", Eng. Struct., 33(4), 1149-1156. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.engstruct.2010.12.033
- Heo, G., Kim, C. and Lee, C. (2014), "Experimental test of asymmetrical cable-stayed bridges using MR-damper for vibration control", Soil Dyn. Earthq. Eng., 57, 78-85. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.soildyn.2013.10.007
- Herlufsen, H., Gade, S. and Moller, N. (2006), "Identification techniques for Operational Modal Analysis - An overview and practical experiences", IMAC-XXIV: Conference & Exposition on Structural Dynamics, St. Louis, MI, USA, January-February.
- Jacobsen, N.J., Andersen, P. and Brincker, R. (2006), "Using enhanced frequency domain decomposition as a robust technique to harmonic excitation in operational modal analysis", Proceedings of ISMA2006: International Conference on Noise &Vibration Engineering, Leuven, Belgium, September.
- Karmakar, D., Chaudhuri, S.R. and Shinozuka, M. (2012), "Seismic response evaluation of retrofitted Vincent Thomas Bridge under spatially variable ground motions", Soil Dyn. Earthq. Eng., 42, 119-127. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.soildyn.2012.06.008
- Kayhan, A.H., Korkmaz, K.A. and Irfanoglu, A. (2011), "Selecting and scaling real ground motion records using harmony search algorithm", Soil Dyn. Earthq. Eng., 31(7), 941-953. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.soildyn.2011.02.009
- Kim, D.H., Moon, D.Y., Kim, M.K., Zi, G. and Roh, H. (2015), "Experimental test and seismic performance of partial precast concrete segmental bridge column with cast-in-place base", Eng. Struct., 100, 178-188. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.engstruct.2015.05.034
- Kong, B., Cai, C.S. and Kong, X. (2015), "Field monitoring study of an integral abutment bridge supported by prestressed precast concrete piles on soft soils", Eng. Struct., 104, 18-31. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.engstruct.2015.09.004
- Kulprapha, N. and Warnitchai, P. (2012), "Structural health monitoring of continuous prestressed concrete bridges using ambient thermal responses", Eng. Struct., 40, 20-38. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.engstruct.2012.02.001
- LARSA 4D, V7.07.16 (2013), Academic Version, Larsa, Inc., New York, NY, USA.
- Lee, D.H., Park, J., Lee, K. and Kim, B.H. (2011), "Nonlinear seismic assessment for the post-repair response of RC bridge piers", Compos. Part B: Eng., 42(5), 1318-1329. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compositesb.2010.12.023
- Mara, V., Haghani, R. and Harryson, P. (2014), "Bridge decks of fibre reinforced polymer (FRP): A sustainable solution", Constr. Build. Mater., 50, 190-199. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2013.09.036
- Marti, J.V., Vidosa, F.G., Yepes, V. and Alcala, J. (2013), "Design of prestressed concrete precast road bridges with hybrid simulated annealing", Eng. Struct., 48, 342-352. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.engstruct.2012.09.014
- Mayoral, J.M. and Romo, M.P. (2015), "Seismic response of bridges with massive foundations", Soil Dyn. Earthq. Eng., 71, 88-99. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.soildyn.2015.01.008
- Moravcik, M. (2013), "Modified system of prestressing for new precast girders developed for highway bridges", Procedia Eng., 65, 236-241. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.proeng.2013.09.036
- Park, J. and Towashiraporn, P. (2014), "Rapid seismic damage assessment of railway bridges using the response-surface statistical model", Struct. Safety, 47, 1-12. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.strusafe.2013.10.001
- Ramos, J.L.F.S. (2007), "Damage identification on masonry structures based on vibration signatures", Ph.D. Dissertation; University of Minho, Portugal.
- Roh, H. and Reinhorn, A.M. (2010), "Hysteretic behavior of precast segmental bridge piers with superelastic shape memory alloy bars", Eng. Struct., 32(10), 3394-3403. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.engstruct.2010.07.013
- Roh, H., Ou, Y.C., Kim, J. and Kim, W. (2014), "Effect of yielding level and post-yielding stiffness ratio of ED bars on seismic performance of PT rocking bridge piers", Eng. Struct., 81, 454-463. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.engstruct.2014.10.005
- Ryu, H.K. and Chang, S.P. (2005), "Ultimate strength of continuous composite box-girder bridges with precast decks", J. Constr. Steel Res., 61(3), 329-343. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcsr.2004.08.003
- Sarrazin, M., Moroni, O., Neira, C. and Venegas, B. (2013), "Performance of bridges with seismic isolation bearings during the Maule earthquake, Chile", Soil Dyn. Earthq. Eng., 47, 117-131. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.soildyn.2012.06.019
- Schallhorn, C. and Rahmatalla, S. (2015), "Crack detection and health monitoring of highway steel-girder bridges", Struct. Health Monitor., 14(3), 281-299. https://doi.org/10.1177/1475921714568404
- Sousa, H., Bento, J. and Figueiras, J. (2013), "Construction assessment and long-term prediction of prestressed concrete bridges based on monitoring data", Eng. Struct., 52, 26-37. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.engstruct.2013.02.003
- TSC (2007), Turkish Earthquake Resistant Design Code Specifications for buildings to be built in disaster areas; Ministry of Public Works & Settlement, Ankara, Turkey,
- Valipour, H., Rajabi, A., Foster, S.J. and Bradford, M.A. (2015), "Arching behavior of precast concrete slabs in a deconstructable composite bridge deck", Constr. Build. Mater., 87, 67-77. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2015.04.006
- Wilson, T., Chen, S. and Mahmoud, H. (2015), "Analytical case study on the seismic performance of a curved and skewed reinforced concrete bridge under vertical ground motion", Eng. Struct., 100, 128-136. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.engstruct.2015.06.017
- Xiao, Y., Guo , Y.R., Zhu, P.S., Kunnath, S. and Martin, G.R. (2012), "Networked pseudo dynamic testing of bridge pier and precast pile foundation", Eng. Struct., 38, 32-41. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.engstruct.2011.12.020
- Yan, B., Dai, G.L. and Hu, N. (2015), "Recent development of design and construction of short span high-speed railway bridges in China", Eng. Struct., 100, 707-717. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.engstruct.2015.06.050
- Zacharenaki, A., Fragiadakis, M., Assimaki, D. and Papadrakakis, M. (2014), "Bias assessment in incremental dynamic analysis due to record scaling", Soil Dyn. Earthq. Eng., 67, 158-168. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.soildyn.2014.09.007
- Ambient vibration testing of existing buildings: Experimental, numerical and code provisions vol.10, pp.4, 2018, https://doi.org/10.1177/1687814018772718