Antioxidant, Anti-wrinkle and Whitening Effect of Fermented Extracts of Hwangryunhaedoktang

황련해독탕 발효물의 항산화, 항주름 및 미백 효과

Um, Ji Na;Min, Jin Woo;Joo, Kwang Sik;Kang, Hee Cheol

  • Received : 2017.03.15
  • Accepted : 2017.03.29
  • Published : 2017.03.31


Hwangryunhaedoktang (HHT) has been traditionally used as a preventive and therapeutic medicine to treat enervation and diverse chronic diseases. This study was designed to compare the antioxidant, anti-wrinkle and whitening effects of HHT extract and its fermented extract by Leuconostoc mesenteroides (FHHT). FHHT was prepared by inoculation of L. mesenteroides after the extraction procedure with 70% ethanol. HHT and FHHT was investigated via high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Simultaneous qualitative analysis of two bioacitive components, berberine and palmatine. was achieved by comparing their retention times ($t_R$) and UV spectra with those of the standard components. Cell viability test results indicated that both HHT and FHHT were non-toxic. In DPPH radical scavenging ability, $SC_{50}$ values of the FHHT was $68.85{\mu}g/mL$, which is more effective than HHT. Moreover, FHHT showed higher expression in production of procollagen type I than HHT. In nontoxic concentration range, FHHT showed strong melanin production inhibitory effect in ${\alpha}-melanocyte$ stimulating hormone (${\alpha}-MSH$)-stimulated B16F10 cell ($IC_{50}=9.82{\mu}g/mL$). These results suggested that fermented extracts of hwangryunhaedoktang had considerable potential as a cosmetics ingredient with an antioxidant and anti-wrinkle and whitening effects.


antioxidant;anti-wrinkle;Hwangryunhaedoktang;Leuconostoc mesenteroides;whitening effect


  1. G. A. Imokawa, Possible mechanism underlying the ceramide deficiency in atopic dermatitis: expression of a deacylase enzyme that cleaves the N-acyl linkage of sphingomyelin and glucosylceramide, J. Dermatol. Sci., 55(1), 1 (2009).
  2. J. M. McCord, Oxygen-derived radicals: a link between reperfusion injury and inflammation, Fed. Proc., 46(7), 2402 (1987).
  3. S. Ito and K. Wakamatsu, Quantitative analysis of eumelanin and pheomelanin in humans, mice, and other animals: a comparative review, Pigment cell res., 16(5), 523 (2003).
  4. P. Brenneisen, H. Sies, and K. Scharffetter-Kochanek, Ultraviolet-B irradiation and matrix metalloproteinases: from induction via signaling to initial events, Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci., 973(1), 31 (2002).
  5. L. Maumann, Cosmetic dermatology, principles and practice, 10, McGraw-Hill, New York (2002).
  6. M. K. Lee, D. H. Kim, T. S. Park, and J. H. Son, Antioxidant and anti-wrinkling effects of extracts from Vitex trifolia L., J. Appl. Biol. Chem., 58(2), 125 (2015).
  7. J. Heo, Dongui bogam, 113, Nam sandang, Seoul (1976).
  8. Y. S. Hwang, C. Y. Shin, Y. Huh, and J. H. Ryu, Hwangryun-hae-dok-tang (huanglian-jie-du-tang) extract and its constituents reduce ischemia-reperfusion brain injury and neutrophil infiltration in rats, Life Sci., 71(18), 2105 (2002).
  9. H. J. Yang, H. A. Joo, S. C. Baek, J. S. Park, and S. H. Hong, Anti-inflammatory effects of hwangryeonhaedok-tang and fermented hwangnyeohaedok-tang, J. Korean Orient. Med. Ophthalmol. Otolaryngol. Dermato., 24(2), 1 (2011).
  10. C. L. Kuo, C. W. Chi, and T. Y. Liu, The anti-inflammatory potential of berberine in vitro and in vivo, Cancer Lett., 203(2), 127 (2004).
  11. W. A Creasey, Biochemical effects of berberine, Biochem. Pharmacol., 28(7), 1081 (1979).
  12. W. Tan, J. Lu, M. Huang, Y. Li, M. Chen, G. Wu, Z. Zhong, Z. Xu, Y. Dang, J. Guo, X. Chen, and Y. Wang, Anti-cancer natural products isolated from chinese medicinal herbs, Chin. Med., 6(1), 27 (2011).
  13. S. S. Lee, Y. H. Kim, and M. K. Lee, Inhibition of monoamine oxidase by palmatine, Arch. Pharm. Res., 22(5), 529 (1999).
  14. D. K. Semwal, U. Rawat, R. Semwal, R. Singh, and G. J. P. Singh, Anti-hyperglycemic effect of 11-hydroxypalmatine, a palmatine derivative from Stephania glabra tubers, J. Asian Nat. Prod. Res., 12(2), 99 (2010).
  15. J. S. Lee, K. S. Lee, and B. K. Song, Experimental studies on the effect of samul-tang and samul-tang gagambang aqua-acupuncture, J. Orient. Obstet. Gynecol., 14(1), 1 (2001).
  16. D. Y. Im and K. L. Lee, Melanin production inhibitory activity of the Dendropanax morbifera leaf extract fermented by Lactobacillus plantarum, Kor. J. Pharmacogn, 47(1), 18 (2016).
  17. C. H. Kang, S. C. Kim, S. C. Jeong, W. Han, S. Y. Lee, S. M. Yu, H. M. Jin, and Y. S. Kim, Physicochemical characteristics of fermented phragmites communis extract and its biological activity, Kor. J. Pharmacogn., 47(1), 273 (2012).
  18. J. M. Jeon, S. K. Choi, U. J. Kim, S. J. Jang, J. W. Cheon, and J. S. Lee, Antioxidant and antiaging effect of ginseng berry extract fermented by lactic acid bacteria, J. Soc. Cosmet. Sci. Korea, 37(1), 75 (2012).
  19. H. J. Choi, J. H. Lee, M. Y. Yun, and J. S. Lee, Anti-inflammatory and whitening effect of the lyophilized powder of oriental plant extracts fermented with Streptococcus thermophiles, J. Soc. Cosmet. Sci. Korea, 41(2), 159 (2015).
  20. W. S. Choi, H. S. Kwon, R. H. No, G. P. Choi, and H. Y. Lee, Enhancement of anti-inflammatory activities of fermented Scutellaria baicalensis extracts using Lactobacillus rhamnosus, J. Soc. Cosmet. Sci. Korea, 39(4), 303 (2013).
  21. J. Ranke, K. Molter, F. Stock, U. Bottin-Weber, J. Poczobutt, J. Hoffmann, B. Ondruschka, J. Filser, and B. Jastorff, Biological effects of imidazolium ionic liquids with varying chain lengths in acute Vibrio fischeri and WST-1 cell viability assays, Ecotoxicol. Environ. Saf., 58(3), 396 (2004).
  22. M. S. Blois, Antioxidant determinations by the use of a stable free radical, Nature, 181(4617), 1199 (1958).
  23. L. Grycova, J. Dostal, and R. Marek, Quaternary protoberberine alkaloids, Phytochem., 68, 150 (2007).
  24. M. S. Lee, S. H. Chung, D. H. Kim, S. Y. Choung, and S. K. Kim, Synthesis of protoberberine derivatives and studies on their biological activities, Yakhak Hoeji, 34(1), 296 (1990).
  25. J. Torel, J. Gillard, and P. Gillard, Antioxidant activity of flavonoids and reactivity with peroxy radical, Phytochem., 25(2), 383 (1986).
  26. V. Pongkittiphan, W. Chavasiri, and R. Supabphol, Antioxidant effect of berberine and its phenolic derivatives against human fibrosarcoma cells, Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 16(13), 5371 (2015).
  27. J. G. Lee, J. Y. Choi, J. S. Oh, H. W. Jung, E. H Choi, H. S. Lee, J. A. Kim, T. S. Chang, J. K. Son, and S. H. Lee, Isolation of melanin biosynthesis inhibitory compounds from the Phellodendri Cortex, Kor. J. Pharmacogn, 38(1), 387 (2007).
  28. F. Traore, M. Gasquet, M. Laqet, H. Guiraud, C. Di Giorgio, N. Azas, O. Doumbo, and P. Timon-David, Toxicity and genotoxicity of antimalarial alkaloid rich extracts derived from Mitragyna inermis O. Kuntze and Nauclea latifolia, Phytother. Res., 14(8), 608 (2000).<608::AID-PTR667>3.0.CO;2-D