Evaluation of Whitening Activities of Flower and Fruit of Sophora japonica L.

회화나무(Sophora japonica L.) 꽃(괴화)과 열매(괴각)의 미백활성 평가

Jang, Tae Won;Park, Jae Ho

  • Received : 2016.08.10
  • Accepted : 2016.10.31
  • Published : 2017.02.28


Sophora japonica has been used for treatment of liver and blood-related diseases in herbology. We evaluated whitening activities of Sophorae Flos and Fructus. Sophorae Flos and Fructus were extracted with methanol (MeOH) and divided into petroleum ether, ethyl acetate(EtOAC) and water fraction. For whitening effect by western blot in B16 F10 cells, we analyzed it by investigating the effect of tyrosinase, TRP-l (tyrosinase-related protein 1), TRP-2 (tyrosinase-related protein 2) and MITF (microphthalmia-associated transcription factor) protein expression. The protein expressions of tyrosinase, TRP-1, TRP-2 and MITF in B16 F10 cells treated with Sophorae Flos and Fructus extract were reduced in a dose-dependant manner. Therefore, these results suggest that Sophorae Flos and Fructus have useful plant resource to be developed as functional cosmetic.


Sophora japonica;TRP-1;TRP-2;Tyrosinase


  1. Ahn, J.H., S.H. Jin and H.Y. Kang. 2008. LPS induces melanogenesis through p38 MAPK activation in human melanocytes. Arch. Dermatol. Res. 300(6):325-329.
  2. Bentley, N.J., T. Eisen and C.R. Goding. 1994. Melanocytespecific expression of the human tyrosinase promoter: activation by the microphthalmia gene product and role of the initiator. Mol. Cell. Biol. 14(12):7996-8006.
  3. Chung, J.H., V.N. Hanft and S. Kang. 2003. Aging and photoaging. J. American Acad. Dermatol. 49(4):690-697.
  4. Curto, E.V., C. Kwong, H. Hermersdörfer, H. Glatt, C. Santis, V. Virador, V.J. Hearing and T.P. Dooley. 1999. Inhibitors of mammalian melanocyte tyrosinase: in vitro comparisons of alkyl esters of gentisic acid with other putative inhibitors. Biochem. Pharmacol. 57(6):663-672.
  5. Eberlein-Konig, B., M. Placzek and B. Przybilla. 1998. Protective effect against sunburn of combined systemic ascorbic acid (vitamin C) and d-${\alpha}$-tocopherol (vitamin E). J. American Dermatol. 38(1):45-48.
  6. Fantone, J.C. and P.A. 1982. Ward. Role of oxygen-derived free radicals and metabolites in leukocyte-dependent inflammatory reactions. American J. Pathol. 107(3):395-418.
  7. Fisher, G.J., S. Kang, J. Varani, Z. Bata-Csorgo, Y. Wan, S. Datta and J.J. Voorhees. 2002. Mechanisms of photoaging and chronological skin aging. Arch Dermatol. 138(11):1462-1470.
  8. Hearing, V.J. and M. Jimenez. 1987. Mammalian tyrosinasethe critical regulatory control point in melanocyte pigmentation. Int. J. Biochem. 19(12):1141-1147.
  9. Hearing, V.J. and K. Tsukamoto. 1991. Enzymatic control of pigmentation in mammals. The FASEB J. 5(14):2902-2909.
  10. Hemesath, T.J., E.R. Price, C. Takemoto, T. Badalian and D.E. Fisher. 1998. MAP kinase links the transcription factor Microphthalmia to c-kit signalling in melanocytes. Nature 391(6664):298-301.
  11. Jang, J.Y., H.N. Kim, Y.R. Kim, Y.H. Choi, B.W. Kim, H.K. Shin and B.T. Choi. 2012. Aqueous fraction from Cuscuta japonica seed suppresses melanin synthesis through inhibition of the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway in B16F10 cells. J Ethnopharmacol. 141(1):338-344.
  12. Jang, T.W., Y.R. Kim, S.H. Lee, D.W. Kim and J.H Park. 2015. Antioxidative activities and inhibition of DNA damage of ethyl acetate fraction from Sophorae flos and Sophorae fructus. Korean J. Herbol. 30(2):31-36 (in Korean).
  13. Jee, S.O. 2009. Antioxidant activities and whitening effect of the mulberry (Morus alba L.) root bark extracts. Korean J. Plant Res. 22(2):145-151 (in Korean).
  14. Jimenez-Cervantes, C., F. Solano, T. Kobayashi, K. Urabe, V.J. Hearing, J.A. Lozano and J.C. Garcia-Borron. 1994. A new enzymatic function in the melanogenic pathway. The 5,6-dihydroxyindole-2-carboxylic acid oxidase activity of tyrosinase-related protein-1 (TRP-1). J. Biol. Chem. 269(27):17993-18000.
  15. Kim, B., Y.E. Choi and H.S. Kim. 2014. Eruca sativa and its flavonoid components, quercetin and isorhamnetin, improve skin barrier function by activation of peroxisome proliferatoractivated receptor (PPAR)-${\alpha}$ and suppression of inflammatory cytokines. Phytother. Res. 28(9):1359-1366.
  16. Kim, E.C., S.Y. Ahn, E.S. Hong, G.H. Li, E.K. Kim and K.H. Row. 2005. Extraction of whitening agents from natural plants and whitening effect. Korean J. Ind. Eng. Chem. 16(3):348-353.
  17. Lee, M.S., H.D. Yoon, J.I. Kim, J.S. Choi, D.S. Byun and H.R. Kim. 2012. Dioxinodehydroeckol inhibits melanin synthesis through PI3K/Akt signalling pathway in ${\alpha}$-melanocyte-stimulating hormone-treated B16F10 cells. Exp. Dermatol. 21(6):471-473.
  18. Lee, S.Y., E.J. Hwang, G.H. Kim, Y.B. Choi, C.Y. Lim and S.M. Kim. 2005. Antifungal and antioxidant activities of extracts from leaves and flowers of Camellia japonica L. Korean J. Med. Crop. Sci. 13(3):93-100.
  19. Lin, Y.S., M.T. Chuang, C.H. Chen, M.Y. Chien and W.C. Hou. 2012. Nicotinic acid hydroxamate downregulated the melanin synthesis and tyrosinase activity through activating the MEK/ERK and AKT/$GSK3{\beta}$ signaling pathways. J. Agric. Food. Chem. 60(19):4859-4864.
  20. Marnett, L.J. 2000. Oxyradicals and DNA damage. Carcinogenesis 21(3):361-370.
  21. Masaki, H., S. Sakaki, T, T. Atsumi and H. Sakurai. 1995. Active-oxygen scavenging activity of plant extracts. Biol. Pharm. Bull. 18(1):162-166.
  22. Maxwell, S.J. 1995. Prospects for the use of antioxidant therapies. Drugs 49(3):345-361.
  23. Park, H.Y., M. Kosmadaki, M. Yaar and B.A. Gilchrest. 2009. Cellular mechanisms regulating human melanogenesis. Cell. Mol. Life. Sci. 66(9):1493-1506.
  24. Park, S.N. 2003. Protective effect of isoflavone, genistein from soybean on singlet oxygen induced photohemolysis of human erythrocytes. Korean J. Food. Sci. Technol. 35(3):510-518.
  25. Seifried, H.E., D.E. Anderson, E.I. Fisher and J.A. Milner. 2007. A review of the interaction among dietary antioxidants and reactive oxygen species. J. Nutr. Biochem. 18(9):567-579.
  26. Seo, J.Y., K.H. Cho, H.C. Eun and J.H. Chung. 2001. Skin aging from phenotype to mechanism. Korean J. Investig. Dermatol. 8(1):187-194 (in Korean).
  27. Seo, B.I., J.H. Lee, H.Y. Choi, D.R. Kwon and Y.M. Boo. 2008. Herbologycal Study on Herbal Medicine. Youngrim, Seoul, Korea. pp. 761-766.
  28. Sim, M.O., H.E. Lee, J.H. Jang, H.K. Jung, T.M. Kim, M.S. Kim and W.S. Jung. 2016. Anti-melanogenesis and anti-wrinkle properties of Korean native Dendrobium speciosum ethanol extract. Korean J. Plant Res. 29(2):155-162 (in Korean).
  29. Sohn, E.S., S.W. Kim, J.S. Kang and S.P. Lee. 2004. Technology trend and patent information analysis of cosmetic materials derived from natural products. Appl. Chem. 8:466-469.
  30. Svobodova, A., J. Psotova and D. Walterova. 2003. Natural phenolics in the prevention of UV-induced skin damage a review. Biomed. Papers. 147(2):137-145.
  31. Yang, E.S., J.S. Hwang, H.C. Choi, R.H. Hong and S.M. Kang. 2008. The effect of genistein on melanin synthesis and in vivo whitening. Korean J. Soc. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 36(1):72-81.

Cited by

  1. Inhibitory effect of Nymphoides indica extract on α-MSH induced melanin synthesis vol.60, pp.4, 2017,