Black gram (Vigna Mungo L.) foliage supplementation to crossbred cows: effects on feed intake, nutrient digestibility and milk production

  • Dey, Avijit (Regional Research Sub-station and Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Uttar Banga Krishi Viswavidyalaya) ;
  • De, Partha Sarathi (Department of Botany, Sonamukhi College, University of Burdwan) ;
  • Gangopadhyay, Prabir Kumar (Regional Research Sub-station and Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Uttar Banga Krishi Viswavidyalaya)
  • Received : 2016.04.11
  • Accepted : 2016.05.30
  • Published : 2017.02.01


Objective: An experiment was conducted to examine the effect of dietary supplementation of dried and ground foliage of black gram (Vigna mungo L.) on feed intake and utilization, and production performance of crossbred lactating cows. Methods: Eighteen lactating crossbred (Bos taurus${\times}$Bos indicus) cows (body weight $330.93{\pm}10.82kg$) at their second and mid lactation (milk yield $6.77{\pm}0.54kg/d$) were randomly divided into three groups of six each in a completely randomized block design. Three supplements were formulated by quantitatively replacing 0, 50, and 100 per cent of dietary wheat bran of concentrate mixture with dried and ground foliage of black gram. The designated supplement was fed to each group with basal diet of rice straw (ad libitum) to meet the requirements for maintenance and milk production. Daily feed intake and milk yield was recorded. A digestion trial was conducted to determine the total tract digestibility of various nutrients. Results: The daily feed intake was increased (p<0.05) with the supplementation of black gram foliage. Although the digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, crude protein, and ether extract did not vary (p>0.05), the fibre digestibility was increased (p<0.05), which ultimately improved (p<0.05) the total digestible nutrients content of composite diet. Although, the average milk yield (kg/animal/d) and composition did not differ (p>0.05) among the groups, milk yield was increased by 10 per cent with total replacement of wheat bran in concentrate mixture with of black gram foliage. The economics of milk production calculated as feed cost per kg milk yield (INR 10.61 vs 7.98) was reduced by complete replacement of wheat bran with black gram foliage. Conclusion: Black gram foliage could be used as complete replacement for wheat bran in concentrate mixture of dairy cows in formulating least cost ration for economic milk production in small holders' animal production.


Black Gram Foliage;Intake;Nutrient Digestibility;Milk Yield;Cows


Supported by : Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR)


  1. Leng R, Preston T. Nutritional strategies for the utilization of agro-industrial by-products by ruminants and extension of the principles and technologies to the small farmer in Asia. In: New strategies for improving animal production for human welfare: proceedings/the Fifth World Conference on Animal Production, August 14-19, 1983; 1983: Tokyo, Japan: Japanese Society of Zootechnical Science, 1983.
  2. Ma T, Tu Y, Zhang N, Deng K, Diao Q. Effect of the ratio of non-fibrous carbohydrates to neutral detergent fiber and protein structure on intake, digestibility, rumen fermentation, and nitrogen metabolism in lambs. Asian-Australa J Anim Sci 2015;28:1419-26.
  3. Urdaneta AB, Fondevila M, Balcells J, Dapoza C, Castrillo C. In vitro microbial digestion of straw cell wall polysaccharides in response to supplementation with different sources of carbohydrates. Crop and Pasture Sci 2000;51:393-400.
  4. Wanapat M, Kang S, Polyorach S. Development of feeding systems and strategies of supplementation to enhance rumen fermentation and ruminant production in the tropics. J Anim Sci Biotechnol 2013;4:32.
  5. CSIR. A dictionary of Indian raw materials & industrial products. Raw materials. In: Research CoSaI, editor. The Wealth of India. New Delhi: Council of Scientific and Industrial Research; 1976. p. 591.
  6. Jensen PCM. Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper. In: Brink M and Belay G, editors. Record from Protabase. PROTA (Plant Resources of Tropical Africa/Ressources vegetales de l'Afrique tropicale), Wageningen, Netherlands; 2006.
  7. Arulnathan N, Murugan M, Balakrishnan V. Proximate principles, Fibre fraction and Mineral content of Black gram husk (Vigna mungo). Int J Livest Res 2013;3:24-30.
  8. Kearl LC. Nutrient requirements of ruminants in developing countries: International Feedstuffs Institute; 1982.
  9. AOAC. Official Methods of Analysis. Wasington, DC: Association of Official Analytical Chemists; 1995.
  10. Van Soest PV, Robertson J, Lewis B. Methods for dietary fiber, neutral detergent fiber, and nonstarch polysaccharides in relation to animal nutrition. J Dairy Sci 1991;74:3583-97.
  11. ISI. Chemical analysis of milk, part II. Indian Standards Methods of test for dairy industry. New Delhi, India: Indian Standards Institute; 1961.
  12. Snedecor GW, Cochran WC. Statistical Methods. 8th ed. New Delhi, India: East West Press Pvt. Ltd; 1994.
  13. Krishnamoorthy U, Soller H, Steingass H, Menke K. Energy and protein evaluation of tropical feedstuffs for whole tract and ruminal digestion by chemical analyses and rumen inoculum studies in vitro. Anim Feed Sci Technol 1995;52:177-88.
  14. Dey A, Dutta N, Sharma K, Pattanaik AK. Effect of dietary inclusion of Ficus infectoria leaves as a protectant of proteins on the performance of lambs. Small Rumin Res 2008;75:105-14.
  15. Dey A, De PS. Influence of condensed tannins from Ficus bengalensis leaves on feed utilization, milk production and antioxidant status of crossbred cows. Asian-Australas J Anim Sci 2014;27: 342-8.
  16. Ranjhan SK. Animal nutrition and feeding practices. 6 ed. New Delhi, India: Vikas Publishing House Pvt. Ltd; 2004.
  17. Dey A, Dutta N, Sharma K, Pattanaik AK. Response of dairy cows to dietary supplementation of condensed tannins through Ficus infectoria leaves. Indian J Anim Sci 2009;79:58.
  18. Dey A, Paul SS, Pandey P, Rathore R. Potential of Moringa oleifera leaves in modulating in vitro methanogenesis and fermentation of wheat straw in buffalo. Indian J Anim Sci 2014;84:533-8.
  19. Islam M, Sarker N, Islam M. Effect of feeding legume forage with straw supplementation on milk production at Pabna milk shed area. Asian-Australas J Anim Sci 1995;8:107-11.
  20. Kumar S, Garg M. Nutritional evaluation of Black gram straw (Phaseolus Mungo) in Hurrah heifers. Indian J Anim Nutr 1995; 12:181-2.
  21. Saran S, Singh R, Singh R, Rani SI, Singh K. Feed resources for rearing livestock in the Bundelkhand region of Uttar Pradesh. Indian J Anim Sci 2000;70:526-9.
  22. Krause DO, Denman SE, Mackie RI, et al. Opportunities to improve fiber degradation in the rumen: microbiology, ecology, and genomics. FEMS Microbiol Rev 2003;27:663-93.