- Volume 30 Issue 4
DOI QR Code
Heat tolerance in Brazilian hair sheep
- Seixas, Luiza (Faculty of Agronomy and Veterinary Medicine, Graduate Program in Animal Sciences, University of Brasilia (UnB)) ;
- Melo, Cristiano Barros de (Faculty of Agronomy and Veterinary Medicine, Graduate Program in Animal Sciences, University of Brasilia (UnB)) ;
- Tanure, Candice Bergmann (Faculty of Agronomy and Veterinary Medicine, Graduate Program in Animal Sciences, University of Brasilia (UnB)) ;
- Peripolli, Vanessa (Faculty of Agronomy and Veterinary Medicine, Graduate Program in Animal Sciences, University of Brasilia (UnB)) ;
- McManus, Concepta (Faculty of Agronomy and Veterinary Medicine, Graduate Program in Animal Sciences, University of Brasilia (UnB))
- Received : 2016.03.07
- Accepted : 2016.05.25
- Published : 2017.04.01
Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate heat tolerance using heat tolerance indices, physiological, physical, thermographic, and hematological parameters in Santa Ines and Morada Nova sheep breeds in the Federal District, Brazil. Methods: Twenty-six adult hair sheep, one and a half years old, from two genetic groups (Santa Ines: 12 males and 4 females; Morada Nova: 7 males and 3 females) were used and data (rectal temperature, respiratory rate, heart rate, skin temperatures; hematological parameters) were collected during three consecutive days, twice a day (morning and afternoon), with a total of six repetitions. Also physical parameters (biometric measurements, skin and hair traits) and heat tolerance indices (temperature-humidity index, Iberia and Benezra) were evaluated. The analyses included analyses of variance, correlation, and principal components with a significance level of 5%. Results: The environmental indices, in general, indicate a situation of thermal discomfort for the animals during the afternoon. Breed significantly influenced (p<0.001) physiological and physical characteristics of skin, hair, biometric measurements and Iberia and Benezra heat tolerance indices. Santa Ines animals were bigger and had longer, greater number and darker hair, thicker skin, greater respiratory rate and Benezra index and lower Iberia index compared with Morada Nova breed. Conclusion: Although both breeds can be considered adapted to the environmental conditions of the region, Morada Nova breed is most suitable for farming in the Midwest region. The positive correlation found between the thermographic temperatures and physiological parameters indicates that this technique can be used to evaluate thermal comfort. Also, it has the advantage that animals do not have to be handled, which favors animal welfare.
Adaptability;Ewe;Infrared Thermography;Physiology;Thermal Stress
- Hulme PE. Adapting to climate change: Is there scope for ecological management in the face of a global threat? J Appl Ecol 2005;42:784-94. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2664.2005.01082.x
- McManus C, Paludo G, Louvandini H, et al. Heat tolerance in brazilian sheep: Physiological and blood parameters. Trop Anim Health Prod 2009;41:95-101. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11250-008-9162-1
- McManus C, Hermuche P, Paiva SR, et al. Geographical distribution of sheep breeds in brazil and their relationship with climatic and environmental factors as risk classificationfor conservation. Braz J Sci Tech 2014;1:1-15. https://doi.org/10.1186/2196-288X-1-1
- Beede D, Collier R. Potencial nutricional strategies for managed cattle during thermal stress. J Anim Sci 1986;62:543-54. https://doi.org/10.2527/jas1986.622543x
- McManus C, Louvandini H, Paim T, et al. The challenge of sheep farming in the tropics: Aspects related to heat tolerance. Braz J Anim Sci 2011;40:107-20.
- Marai I, Haeeb A. Buffalo's biological functions as affected by heat stress-a review. Livest Sci 2010;127:89-109. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.livsci.2009.08.001
- Bohmanova J, Misztal I, Cole J. Temperature-humidity indices as indicators of milk production losses due to heat stress. J Dairy Sci 2007;90:1947-56. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2006-513
- Gaughan J, Mader T, Gebremedhin K. Rethinking heat index tools for livestock. In: Collier RJ, Collier JL, editors. Environmental physiology of livestock. West Sussex, UK: Wiley-Blackwell; 2011. p. 243-65.
- Gaughan JB, Mader TL, Holt SM, Lisle A. A new heat load index for feedlot cattle. J Anim Sci. 2008;86:226-34. https://doi.org/10.2527/jas.2007-0305
- Stewart M, Stafford K, Dowling S, Schaefer A, Webster J. Eye temperature and heart rate variability of calves disbudded with or without local anaesthetic. Physiol Behav 2008;93:789-97. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.physbeh.2007.11.044
- Stewart M, Webster J, Schaefer A, Cook N, Scott S. Infrared thermography as a non-invasive tool to study animal welfare. Anim Welf 2005;14:319-25.
- Melo E, Lopes DDC, Correa P. Grapsi-programa computacional para o calculo das propriedades psicrometricas do ar. Eng Agric 2004;12:154-62.
- Mader TL, Davis M, Brown-Brandl T. Environmental factors influencing heat stress in feedlot cattle. J Anim Sci 2006;84:712-9. https://doi.org/10.2527/2006.843712x
- Westland S. Review of the cie system of colorimetry and its use in dentistry. J Esthet Restor Dent 2003;15:S5-S12. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1708-8240.2003.tb00313.x
- Reece WO, Erickson HH, Goff JP, Uemura EE. Dukes' physiology of domestic animals. 13th ed. New Jersey, NY: John Wiley and Sons; 2015.
- Silanikove, N. Effects of heat stress on the welfare of extensively managed domestic ruminants. Livest Prod Sci 2000;67:1-18. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0301-6226(00)00162-7
- Hahn GL, Gaughan JB, Mader TL, Eigenberg RA. Thermal indices and their applications for livestock environments. In: Hillman PE, DeShazer JA, editors. Livestock energetics and thermal environmental management. St. Joseph, MI: Am Soc Agric Biol Eng; 2009. p. 113.
- Dikmen S, Hansen P. Is the temperature-humidity index the best indicator of heat stress in lactating dairy cows in a subtropical environment? J Dairy Sci 2009;92:109-16. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2008-1370
- Paim TDP, Borges BO, Lima PDMT, et al. Thermographic evaluation of climatic conditions on lambs from different genetic groups. Int J Biometeorol 2013;57:59-66. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00484-012-0533-y
- Correa MPC, Cardoso MT, Castanheira M, et al. Heat tolerance in three genetic groups of lambs in central Brazil. Small Rumin Res 2012;104:70-7. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.smallrumres.2011.11.001
- McManus C, Castanheira M, Paiva SR, et al. Use of multivariate analyses for determining heat tolerance in brazilian cattle. Trop Anim Health Prod 2011;43:623-30. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11250-010-9742-8
- Fadare AO, Peters SO, Yakubu A, et al. Physiological and haematological indices suggest superior heat tolerance of white-coloured west african dwarf sheep in the hot humid tropics. Trop Anim Health Prod 2012;45:157-65. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11250-012-0187-0
- Gebremedhin K, Ni H, Hillman P. Modeling temperature profile and heat flux through irradiated fur layer. Trans ASAE 1997;40:1441-7. https://doi.org/10.13031/2013.21378
- McManus C, Louvandini H, Gugel R, et al. Skin and coat traits in sheep in brazil and their relation with heat tolerance. Trop Anim Health Prod 2011;43:121-6. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11250-010-9663-6
- Marai I, El-Darawany A, Fadiel A, Abdel-Hafez M. Physiological traits as affected by heat stress in sheep-a review. Small Rumin Res 2007;71:1-12. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.smallrumres.2006.10.003
- Andersson BE, Jonasson H. Temperature regulation and environmental physiology. In: Duke HH, Swenson MJ, Reece WO, editors. Dukes' physiology of domestic animals, 11th ed. Ithaca, NY: Comstock; 1993.
- Jain NC. Essentials of veterinary hematology. Philadelphia, PA: Lea and Febiger; 1993.
- Ei-Nouty F, Ai-Haidary A. Seasonal variations in hematological values of high-and average-yielding holstein cattle in semi-arid environment. J. King Saud Univ 1990;2:173-82.
- McManus C, Bianchini E, Paim TP, et al. Infrared thermography to evaluate heat tolerance in different genetic groups of lambs. Sensors 2015;15:17258-73. https://doi.org/10.3390/s150717258
- D'Alterio G, Casella S, Gatto M, et al. Circadian rhythm of foot temperature assessed using infrared thermography in sheep. Czech J Anim Sci 2011;56:293-300. https://doi.org/10.17221/1294-CJAS