DOI QR코드

DOI QR Code

Effects of different ratios and storage periods of liquid brewer's yeast mixed with cassava pulp on chemical composition, fermentation quality and in vitro ruminal fermentation

  • Kamphayae, Sukanya (Khon Kaen Animal Nutrition Research and Development Center) ;
  • Kumagai, Hajime (Laboratory of Animal Husbandry Resources, Division of Applied Biosciences, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University) ;
  • Angthong, Wanna (Khon Kaen Animal Nutrition Research and Development Center) ;
  • Narmseelee, Ramphrai (Khon Kaen Animal Nutrition Research and Development Center) ;
  • Bureenok, Smerjai (Faculty of Sciences and Liberal Arts, Rajamangala University of Technology Isan)
  • Received : 2016.03.16
  • Accepted : 2016.06.11
  • Published : 2017.04.01

Abstract

Objective: This study aims to evaluate the chemical composition, fermentation quality and in vitro ruminal fermentation of various ratios and storage periods of liquid brewer's yeast (LBY) mixed with cassava pulp (CVP). Methods: Four mixtures of fresh LBY and CVP were made (LBY0, LBY10, LBY20, and LBY30 for LBY:CVP at 0:100, 10:90, 20:80, and 30:70, respectively) on a fresh matter basis, in 500 g in plastic bags and stored at 30 to $32^{\circ}C$. After storage, the bags were opened weekly from weeks 0 to 4. Fermentation quality and in vitro gas production (IVGP) were determined, as well as the dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), crude protein (CP), ether extract (EE), neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber and acid detergent lignin contents. Results: The contents of CP and EE increased, whereas all other components decreased, in proportion to LBY inclusion (p<0.01). The DM and OM contents gradually decreased in weeks 3 and 4 (p<0.05), while EE contents were lowest in week 0. The pH, ammonia nitrogen per total nitrogen ($NH_3-N/TN$) and V-score in each mixture and storage period demonstrated superior fermentation quality ($pH{\leq}4.2$, $NH_3-N/TN{\leq}12.5%$, and V-score>90%). The pH increased and $NH_3-N/TN$ decreased, with proportionate increases of LBY, whereas the pH decreased and $NH_3-N/TN$ increased, as the storage periods were extended (p<0.01). Although IVGP decreased in proportion to the amount of LBY inclusion (p<0.01), in vitro organic matter digestibility (IVOMD) was unaffected by the mixture ratios. The highest IVGP and IVOMD were observed in week 0 (p<0.01). Conclusion: The inclusion of LBY (as high as 30%) into CVP improves the chemical composition of the mixture, thereby increasing the CP content, while decreasing IVGP, without decreasing fermentation quality and IVOMD. In addition, a preservation period of up to four weeks can guarantee superior fermentation quality in all types of mixtures. Therefore, we recommend limiting the use of CVP as a feed ingredient, given its low nutritional value and improving feed quality with the inclusion of LBY.

Keywords

Cassava Pulp;Chemical Composition;Fermentation Quality;In vitro Ruminal Fermentation;Liquid Brewer's Yeast

Acknowledgement

Supported by : Agricultural Research Development Agency

References

  1. Aliyu S, Bala M. Brewer's spent grain: A review of its potentials and applications. Afr J Biotechnol 2011;10:324-31.
  2. Levic J, Djuragic O, Sredanovic S. Use of new feed from brewer byproducts for breeding layers. Rom Bio Lett 2010;15:5559-65.
  3. Manzano M, Giusto C, Bartolomeoli I, Buiatti S, Comi G. Microbiological analyses of dry and slurry yeasts for brewing. J Inst Brew 2005;111:203-8. https://doi.org/10.1002/j.2050-0416.2005.tb00667.x
  4. Bruning CL, Yokoyama MT. Characteristics of live and killed brewer's yeast slurries and intoxication by intraruminal administration to cattle. J Anim Sci 1987;66:585-91.
  5. Linton JH. Nutritional evaluation of brewery by-products. Review of nutrition papers from Brewers Feed Conference. Feedstuffs 1977;51:8.
  6. Grieve DG. Feed intake and growth of cattle fed liquid brewer's yeast. Can J Anim Sci 1979;59:89-94. https://doi.org/10.4141/cjas79-011
  7. Steckley JD, Grieve DG, Macleod GK, Moran Jr ET. Brewer's yeast slurry. II. A source of supplementary protein for lactating dairy cattle. J Dairy Sci 1979;62:947-53. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(79)83353-6
  8. KKB. Khon Kaen Brewery [Internet]. History [cited 2015 Feb 25]. Available from: http://khonkaenbrewery.co.th/index.php?route=about/about
  9. OAE [Internet]. Office of Agricultural Economics [cited 2014 Nov 5]. Available from:http://www.oae.go.th/download/prcai/DryCrop/cassava.pdf
  10. Yimmongkol S. Research and development projects on improvement of the potential use of dried cassava pulp and cassava leaf meal in concentrate of feedlot cattle. [Ph.D. thesis]. Bangkok, Thailand: Kasetsart University; 2009.
  11. Jintanawit W, Juttupornpong S, Markranit R, Srimongcholngam S, Viwatwongwana N. A study of changing of population of lactic acid bacteria and yeast during ensilaging of cassava pulp. Proceedings of the 44th Kasetsart University Annual Conference, 2006; 2006 Jan 30-Feb 2: Kasetsart University, Bangkok, Thailand: Kasetsart University; 2006. pp. 131-7.
  12. Kosugi A, Kondo A, Ueda M, et al. Production of ethanol from cassava pulp via fermentation with a surface-engineered yeast strain displaying glucoamylase. Renew Energy 2009;34:1354-8. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.renene.2008.09.002
  13. Kosoom W, Charoenwattanasakun N, Ruangpanit Y, Rattanatabtimtong S, Attamangkune S. Physical, chemical and biological properties of cassava pulp. Proceedings of the 47th Kasetsart University Annual Conference, 2009; 2009 Mar 17-20: Kasetsart University, Bangkok, Thailand: Kasetsart University; 2009. pp.117-24.
  14. Kaewwongsa W, Traiyakun S, Yuangklang, C, Wachirapakorn C, Paengkoum P. Protein enrichment of cassava pulp fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. J Anim Vet Adv 2011;10:2434-40.
  15. Chumpawadee S, Soychuta S. Nutrient enrichment of cassava starch industry by-product using rumen microorganism as inoculums source. Pak J Nutr 2009;8:1380-2. https://doi.org/10.3923/pjn.2009.1380.1382
  16. Thongkratoke R, Khempaka S, Molee W. Protein enrichment of cassava pulp using microorganisms fermentation techniques for use as an alternative animal feedstuff. J Anim Vet Adv 2010;9:2859-62. https://doi.org/10.3923/javaa.2010.2859.2862
  17. Vorachinda R, Bunyatratchata W, Suriyagamon S, et al. Improvement of protein content in cassava pulp by fungi fermentation. The 3rd International Conference on Sustainable Animal Agriculture for Developing Countries (SAADC2011); 2011 Jul 26-29: Nakhon Ratchasima, Thailand; 2011. pp. 307-11.
  18. Society of Utilization of Self Supplied Feeds. The Guidebook for Quality Evaluation of Forage, 3th ed. Tokyo, Japan: Japan Grassland Agriculture and Forage Seed Association (In Japanese); 2009.
  19. AOAC. Official Methods of Analysis. 17th ed. Arlington, VA: Association of Official Analytical Chemists;2000.
  20. Van Soest PJ, Robertson JB, Lewis BA. Methods for dietary fiber, neutral detergent fiber and non-starch polysaccharides in relation to animal nutrition. J Dairy Sci 1991;74:3583-97. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(91)78551-2
  21. Cai Y. Methods for feed evaluation of forages: Silage Analyses. In Japan Society of Grassland Science, editor. Field and laboratory methods for grassland science. Tokyo, Japan; Japan Livestock Technology Association; 2004. p. 279-83.
  22. Yang XL, Li JL, Yu Z, et al. Influence of moisture content on the silage quality of Lolium multiflorum. J Anim Vet Adv 2014;13:702-5.
  23. Menke KH, Steingass H. Estimation of energetic feed value obtained from chemical analysis and in vitro gas production. Anim Res Dev 1988;28:7-55.
  24. SAS Institute. User's Guide: Statistics. Cary, NC: SAS Institute Inc; 1996.
  25. Steel RGD, Torrie JH. Principles and Procedure of Statistics: A biometrical approach. 2nd ed. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Book Company; 1980.
  26. Steckley JD, Grieve DG, Macleod GK, Moran Jr ET. Brewer's yeast slurry, I. Composition as affected by length of storage, temperature, and chemical treatment. J Dairy Sci 1979;62:941-6. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(79)83352-4
  27. Adeyemi OA, Eruvbetine D, Oguntona T, Dipeolu MA, Agunbiade JA. Enhancing the nutritional value of whole cassava root meal by rumen filtrate fermentation. Arch Zootec 2007;56:261-4.
  28. Lounglawan P, Khungaew M, Suksombat W. Silage production from cassava peel and cassava pulp as energy source in cattle diets. J AnimVet Adv 2011;10:1007-11.
  29. Umana R, Staples CR, Bates CB, Wilcox CJ, Mahanna WC. Effects of a microbial inoculant and (or) sugarcane molasses on the fermentation, aerobic stability, and digestibility of bermudagrass ensiled at two moisture contents. J Anim Sci 1991;69:4588-601. https://doi.org/10.2527/1991.69114588x
  30. Nishino N, Harada H, Sakaguchi E. Evaluation of fermentation and aerobic stability of wet brewers grains ensiled alone or in combination with various feeds as a total mixed ration. J Sci Food Agric 2003;83:557-63. https://doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.1395
  31. Wang F, Nishino N. Resistance to aerobic deterioration of total mixed ration silage: Effect of ration formulation, air infiltration and storage period on fermentation characteristics and aerobic stability. J Sci Food Agric 2008;88:133-40. https://doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.3057
  32. Dung DV, Shang W, Yao W. Effect of crude protein levels in concentrate and concentrate levels in diet on in vitro fermentation. Asian-Australas J Anim Sci 2014;27:797-805. https://doi.org/10.5713/ajas.2013.13560
  33. Nitipot P, Nishida K, Chaithiang R, Pattarajinda V, Sommart K [Internet]. Metabolizable energy evaluation of pangola grass hay, cassava chip, cassava pulp and brewery waste in Thai native cattle; 2009 [cited 2014 Nov 5]. Available from: http://lib248.kku.ac.th/annaul-conference/work/pdf/AG%2052-12-p55-7.pdf
  34. Suksombat W, Lounglawan P, Noosen P. Energy and protein evaluation of five feedstuffs used in diet in which cassava pulp as main energy source for lactating dairy cow. Suranaree J Sci Technol 2006;14:99-107.
  35. Cerrillo MA, Juarez RAS. In vitro gas production parameters in cacti and tree species commonly consumed by grazing goats in a semi arid region of North Mexico. Livest Res Rural Dev 2004;16:4-9.
  36. Getachew G, Robinson PH, DePeters EJ, Taylor SJ. Relationships between chemical composition, dry matter degradation and in vitro gas production of several ruminant feeds. Anim Feed Sci Technol 2004;111:57-71. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0377-8401(03)00217-7
  37. Coblentz WK, Nellis SE, Hoffman PC, et al. Unique interrelationships between fiber composition, water-soluble carbohydrates, and in vitro gas production for fall-grown oat forages. J Dairy Sci 2013;96:7195-209. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2013-6889

Cited by

  1. Yeast mixture of liquid beer and cassava pulp with rice straw for the growth of dairy heifers vol.49, pp.3, 2017, https://doi.org/10.1007/s11250-016-1218-z
  2. Feed intake, digestibility and energy partitioning in beef cattle fed diets with cassava pulp instead of rice straw vol.31, pp.9, 2018, https://doi.org/10.5713/ajas.17.0759