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Low-Temperature Combustion of Ethanol over Supported Platinum Catalysts

백금 담지 촉매상에서 에탄올의 저온연소

  • Kim, Moon Hyeon (Department of Environmental Engineering, Daegu University)
  • 김문현 (대구대학교 공과대학 환경공학과)
  • Received : 2016.10.27
  • Accepted : 2016.12.06
  • Published : 2017.01.31

Abstract

Combustion of ethanol (EtOH) at low temperatures has been studied using titania- and silica-supported platinum nanocrystallites with different sizes in a wide range of 1~25 nm, to see if EtOH can be used as a clean, alternative fuel, i.e., one that does not emit sulfur oxides, fine particulates and nitrogen oxides, and if the combustion flue gas can be used for directly heating the interior of greenhouses. The results of $H_2-N_2O$ titration on the supported Pt catalysts with no calcination indicate a metal dispersion of $0.97{\pm}0.1$, corresponding to ca. 1.2 nm, while the calcination of 0.65% $Pt/SiO_2$ at 600 and $900^{\circ}C$ gives the respective sizes of 13.7 and 24.6 nm when using X-ray diffraction technique, as expected. A comparison of EtOH combustion using $Pt/TiO_2$ and $Pt/SiO_2$ catalysts with the same metal content, dispersion and nanoparticle size discloses that the former is better at all temperatures up to $200^{\circ}C$, suggesting that some acid sites can play a role for the combustion. There is a noticeable difference in the combustion characteristics of EtOH at $80{\sim}200^{\circ}C$ between samples of 0.65% $Pt/SiO_2$ consisting of different metal particle sizes; the catalyst with larger platinum nanoparticles shows higher intrinsic activity. Besides the formation of $CO_2$, low-temperature combustion of EtOH can lead to many other pathways that generate undesired byproducts, such as formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acetic acid, diethyl ether, and ethylene, depending strongly on the catalyst and reaction conditions. A 0.65% $Pt/SiO_2$ catalyst with a Pt crystallite size of 24.6 nm shows stable performances in EtOH combustion at $120^{\circ}C$ even for 12 h, regardless of the space velocity allowed.

Keywords

Catalytic combustion;Ethanol (EtOH);Supported platinum catalysts;Particle size effect;Side reactions;Aldehydes

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