Effectiveness of the neutron-shield nanocomposites for a dual-purpose cask of Bushehr's Water-Water Energetic Reactor (VVER) 1000 nuclear-power-plant spent fuels

  • Received : 2016.04.02
  • Accepted : 2017.05.05
  • Published : 2017.10.25


In order to perform dry interim storage and transportation of the spent-fuel assemblies of the Bushehr Nuclear Power Plant, dual-purpose casks can be utilized. The effectiveness of different neutron-shield materials for the dual-purpose cask was analyzed through a set of calculations carried out using the Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) code. The dose rate for the dual-purpose cask utilizing the recently developed materials of $epoxy/clay/B_4C$ and $epoxy/clay/B_4C/carbon$ fiber was less than the allowable radiation level of 2 mSv/h at any point and 0.1 mSv/h at 2 m from the external surface of the cask. By utilization of $epoxy/clay/B_4C$ instead of an ethylene glycol/water mixture, the dose rates on the side surface of the cask due to neutron sources and consequent secondary gamma rays will be reduced by 17.5% and 10%, respectively. The overall dose rate in this case will be reduced by 11%.


  1. IAEA, Reference Data Series, Nuclear Power Reactors in the World, No. 2, International Atomic Energy Agency, 2015.
  2. Design and Engineering Survey Institute, Safety Analysis Report for the Bushehr Nuclear Power Plant, Atomenergoergoproekt, Moscow, 2003.
  3. Y. Semchenkov, Y. Styrin, Advancing of VVER Reactor Core, 2010. Bulgaria, Varna.
  4. V.I. Koulikov, T.F. Makarchuk, N.S. Tikhonov, Implementation of burnup credit in spent fuel management systems, Proceedings of an Advisory Group meeting held in Vienna, 20-24 October, IAEA, Vienna, 1997.
  5. IAEA TECDOC, Operation and Maintenance of Spent Fuel Storage and Transportation Casks/Containers, No. 1532, Vienna, Austria, International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), 2007 [CD-ROM].
  6. T. Funke, Ch. Henig, $CASTOR^{(R)}$ 1000/19: development and design of a new transport and storage cask, in: Proceedings of the International Youth Nuclear Congress, 20 - 26 September, Interlaken, Switzerland, 2008.
  7. S.A. Mazur, Development of the Container Fleet for SNF Transportation, OJSC Federal Centre for Nuclear and Radiation Safety, Moscow, 2014.
  8. T. Makarchuk, Experience of cask technology for SNF management, in: International Conference on the Management of Spent Fuel in Nuclear Power Reactors, IAEA, Vienna, 2015.
  9. A.M. Kirkin, A.V. Kuryndin, A.A. Stroganov, Implementation of guidance for an integrated transport and storage safety case for dual purpose casks for spent nuclear fuel in Russian regulatory document, in: International Conference on Management of Spent Fuel from Nuclear Power Reactors: An Integrated Approach to the Back End of the Fuel Cycle, IAEA, Vienna, 2015.
  10. IAEA TECDOC, Guidance for Preparation of a Safety Case for a Dual Purpose Cask Containing Spent Fuel, International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Vienna, 2013.
  11. J.H. Ko, et al., Shielding analysis of dual purpose casks for spent nuclear fuel under normal storage conditions, Nucl. Eng. Technol. 46 (2014) 547-556.
  12. B. Droste, Overview of preparation of a safety case for a dual purpose cask for storage and transport of spent fuel and recommendations to WASSC and TRANSSC from WASSC/TRANSSC Working Group, in: International Workshop on the Development and Application of a Safety Case for Dual Purpose Casks for Nuclear Spent Fuel, IAEA, Vienna, 2014.
  13. M. Asami, K. Sawada, A. Konnai, N. Odano, Application of dose evaluation of the MCNP code for the spent fuel transport cask, Prog. Nucl. Sci. Technol. 2 (2011) 855-859.
  14. C.J. Park, C.J. Jeong, D.K. Min, H.Y. Kang, W.S. Choi, J.C. Lee, G.S. Bang, K.S. Seo, Shielding performance of a newly designed transport cask in the advanced conditioning spent fuel pyroprocess facility, Nucl. Eng. Technol. 40 (2008) 319-326.
  15. I.J. Cho, J.N. Jang, G.S. You, J.S. Yoon, Neutron and gamma shielding estimation for the KN-12 cask, J. Nucl. Sci. Technol. 45 (2008) 54-57.
  16. M. Asami, H. Sawamura, K. Nishimura, Monte Carlo shielding calculations for a spent fuel transport cask with automated Monte Carlo variance reduction, J. Nucl. Sci. Technol. 2 (2011) 860-865.
  17. J.K. Shultis, Radiation Analysis of a Spent-fuel Storage Cask, Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, Kansas State University, Manhattan, USA, 2000.
  18. Los Alamos National Laboratory, User Manual Monte Carlo N-particle Transport Code System, Los Alamos National Laboratory, New Mexico, 2000.
  19. IAEA Safety Standards, Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material, Specific Safety Requirements No. SSR-6, International Atomic Energy Agency, 2012.
  20. M. Rezaeian, J. Kamali, Radioactive source specification of Bushehr's VVER-1000 spent fuels, Sci. Technol. Nucl. Ins. 2016 (2016) 4579738,
  21. M.A. Kiani, S.J. Ahmadi, M. Outokesh, Fabrication of "Boron-Clay-Polymer" and "Lead-Clay-Polymer" Nanocomposites for Radiation Shielding of Neutron and Gamma Rays, M.S. thesis, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran, Iran, 2014.
  22. M.B. Emmett, Calculational Benchmark Problems for VVER-1000 Mixed Oxide Fuel Cycle, Oak Ridge National Laboratory: ORNL/TM-1999/207, USA, 2000.
  23. I.I. Linge, E.F. Mitenkova, N.V. Novikov, End-to-end calculation of the radiation characteristics of VVER-1000 spent fuel assemblies, Phys. At. Nucl. 75 (2012) 1603-1615.
  24. P. Petrov, Calculation of the neutron sources in the spent nuclear fuel from WWER-1000, Compt. Rend. Acad. Bulg. Sci. 61 (2008) 885-890.
  25. M. Rezaeian, J. Kamali, Basket criticality design of a dual purpose cask for VVER 1000 spent fuel assemblies, Kerntechnik 81 (2016) 640-646.
  26. M. Rezaeian, J. Kamali, Effect of a dual-purpose cask payload increment of spent fuel assemblies from VVER 1000 Bushehr Nuclear Power Plant on basket criticality, Appl. Radiat. Isot 119 (2017) 80-85.
  27. R.G. Williams, C.J. Gesh, R.T. Pagh, Compendium of Material Composition Data for Radiation Transport Modeling, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory: PNNL-15870 Rev. 1, USA, 2011.