The concept of the innovative power reactor

  • Lee, Sang Won (Central Research Institute, Korea Hydro & Nuclear Power Co., Ltd.) ;
  • Heo, Sun (Central Research Institute, Korea Hydro & Nuclear Power Co., Ltd.) ;
  • Ha, Hui Un (Central Research Institute, Korea Hydro & Nuclear Power Co., Ltd.) ;
  • Kim, Han Gon (Central Research Institute, Korea Hydro & Nuclear Power Co., Ltd.)
  • Received : 2017.01.03
  • Accepted : 2017.06.26
  • Published : 2017.10.25


The Fukushima accident reveals the vulnerability of existing active nuclear power plant (NPP) design against prolonged loss of external electricity events. The passive safety system is considered an attractive alternative to cope with this kind of disaster. Also, the passive safety system enhances both the safety and the economics of NPPs. The adoption of a passive safety system reduces the number of active components and can minimize the construction cost of NPPs. In this paper, reflecting on the experience during the development of the APR+ design in Korea, we propose the concept of an innovative Power Reactor (iPower), which is a kind of passive NPP, to enhance safety in a revolutionary manner. The ultimate goal of iPower is to confirm the feasibility of practically eliminating radioactive material release to the environment in all accident conditions. The representative safety grade passive system includes a passive emergency core cooling system, a passive containment cooling system, and a passive auxiliary feedwater system. Preliminary analysis results show that these concepts are feasible with respect to preventing and/or mitigating the consequences of design base accidents and severe accidents.


  1. A. Teller, The EPR Reactor: Evolution to Gen III+ Based on Proven Technology, IAEA INPRO Dialog Forum, Vienna, 2010.
  2. Korea Hydro & Nuclear Power Co., APR+ Standard Safety Analysis Report, Korea Hydro & Nuclear Power Co., Daejeon, 2014.
  3. H.Y. Choi, K.W. Lee, J.T. Seo, NSSS Design Features of Advanced Power Reactor Plus (APR+), in: ASME 2010 Pressure Vessels and Piping Division/K-PVP Conference, American Society of Mechanical Engineers, 2010. Washington DC, USA.
  4. S.S. Lee, S.H. Kim, K.Y. Suh, The design features of the advanced power reactor 1400, Nucl. Eng. Technol. 41 (2009) 995-1004.
  5. S.W. Lee, T.H. Hong, M.-R. Seo, Y.-S. Lee, H.-T. Kim, Extended station blackout coping capabilities of APR1400, Sci. Technol. Nucl. Install. 2014 (2014), 980418.
  6. Terry L. Schulz, Westinghouse AP1000 advanced passive plant, Nucl. Eng. Des. 236 (2006) 1547-1557.
  7. R.C. Challberg, Y.K. Cheung, S.S. Khorana, H.A. Upton, ESBWR evolution of passive features, in: Proc. ICONE-6, 6th International Conference on Nuclear Engineering, San Diego, USA, 1998.
  8. International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Passive Safety Systems and Natural Circulation in Water Cooled Nuclear Power Plants, IAEA-tecdoc-1624, IAEA, Vienna, 2009.
  9. K.H. Kang, S. Seok, B.U. Bae, Y.J. Cho, Y.S. Park, B.J. Yun, Separate and integral effect tests for validation of cooling and operational performance of the APR+ passive auxiliary feedwater system, Nucl. Eng. Technol. 44 (2012) 597-610.
  10. International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Status Report 108 - VVER-1200 (V-491), Advanced Reactor Information System, IAEA, Vienna, 2013.
  11. H. Wang, China's nuclear power development and Hualong One (HPR1000) PWR technology, in: Technical Meeting on Technology Assessment for New Nuclear Power Programs, International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Vienna, 2015.
  12. Korea Hydro & Nuclear Power Co, Preliminary Study Report on Basic Requirements of IPowerTM, S11NJ17-TC1, Korea Hydro & Nuclear Power Co., Daejeon, 2014.
  13. Korea Hydro & Nuclear Power Co, Preliminary Application of the Passive System in IPower, S11NJ17-TC2, Korea Hydro & Nuclear Power Co., Daejeon, 2014.
  14. T.S. Kwon, C.K. Park, Hybrid SIT for passive safety system, in: Trans. of the KNS Spring Meeting, Gwangju, Korea, 2013.
  15. International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Safety Related Terms for Advanced Nuclear Plants, IAEA-tecdoc-626, IAEA, Vienna, 1991.
  16. Y.A. Migrov, B.K. Efimov, B.K. Zasuha, A.I. Gorshkov, Experimental investigation of AES-2006 containment processes and passive safety systems in KMS test facility, 6th MNTK (International Scientific and Technical Conferences), Russia, May 26-29, 2009.
  17. H.G. Kim, J. Cheon, S.H. Kang, The Development of a Passive Auxiliary Feedwater System in APR+, International Congress on Advances in Nuclear Power Plants (ICAPP) 10, June 2010. San Diego, USA.
  18. B.U. Bae, et al., Design of condensation heat exchanger for the PAFS (passive auxiliary feedwater system) of APR+ (advanced power reactor plus), Ann. Nucl. Energy 46 (2012) 134-143.
  19. S. Kim, B.J. Yun, S. Kim, K.H. Kang, An experimental study on the validation of cooling capability for the Passive Auxiliary Feedwater System (PAFS) condensation heat exchanger, Nucl. Eng. Des. 260 (2013) 54-63.
  20. H.U. Ha, S. Lee, H. Kim, Optimal design of passive containment cooling system for innovative PWR, J. Nucl. Eng. Technol. 49 (5) (2017) 941-952.
  21. Thomas L. Goerge, et al. (QA), NAI 8907-9006, Rev. 19. GOTHIC Thermal Hydraulic Analysis Package Technical Manual, Numerical Applications Inc., Richland, WA, USA, 2012, Version 8.0.