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Concurrent Hypermethylation of SFRP2 and DKK2 Activates the Wnt/β-Catenin Pathway and Is Associated with Poor Prognosis in Patients with Gastric Cancer

  • Wang, Hao (National Engineering Research Center for Miniaturized Detection Systems, School of Life Sciences, Northwest University) ;
  • Duan, Xiang-Long (Second Department of General Surgery, Shaanxi Provincial People's Hospital) ;
  • Qi, Xiao-Li (National Engineering Research Center for Miniaturized Detection Systems, School of Life Sciences, Northwest University) ;
  • Meng, Lei (National Engineering Research Center for Miniaturized Detection Systems, School of Life Sciences, Northwest University) ;
  • Xu, Yi-Song (National Engineering Research Center for Miniaturized Detection Systems, School of Life Sciences, Northwest University) ;
  • Wu, Tong (National Engineering Research Center for Miniaturized Detection Systems, School of Life Sciences, Northwest University) ;
  • Dai, Peng-Gao (National Engineering Research Center for Miniaturized Detection Systems, School of Life Sciences, Northwest University)
  • Received : 2016.10.18
  • Accepted : 2016.12.20
  • Published : 2017.01.31

Abstract

Aberrant hypermethylation of Wnt antagonists has been observed in gastric cancer. A number of studies have focused on the hypermethylation of a single Wnt antagonist and its role in regulating the activation of signaling. However, how the Wnt antagonists interacted to regulate the signaling pathway has not been reported. In the present study, we systematically investigated the methylation of some Wnt antagonist genes (SFRP2, SFRP4, SFRP5, DKK1, DKK2, and APC) and their regulatory role in carcinogenesis. We found that aberrant promoter methylation of SFRP2, SFRP4, DKK1, and DKK2 was significantly increased in gastric cancer. Moreover, concurrent hypermethylation of SFRP2 and DKK2 was observed in gastric cancer and this was significantly associated with increased expression of ${\beta}-catenin$, indicating that the joint inactivation of these two genes promoted the activation of the Wnt signaling pathway. Further analysis using a multivariate Cox proportional hazards model showed that DKK2 methylation was an independent prognostic factor for poor overall survival, and the predictive value was markedly enhanced when the combined methylation status of SFRP2 and DKK2 was considered. In addition, the methylation level of SFRP4 and DKK2 was correlated with the patient's age and tumor differentiation, respectively. In conclusion, epigenetic silencing of Wnt antagonists was associated with gastric carcinogenesis, and concurrent hypermethylation of SFRP2 and DKK2 could be a potential marker for a prognosis of poor overall survival.

Keywords

${\beta}-catenin$;DNA methylation;gastric cancer;prognosis;Wnt antagonists

Acknowledgement

Supported by : National Natural Science Foundation of China

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