DOI QR코드

DOI QR Code

A Convergence Study on the Relationship between Perfectionism, Stress, and Burnout among College Golf Athletes

대학 골프선수들의 완벽주의성향, 스트레스, 그리고 탈진 간의 관계에 대한 융합적 연구

  • Bum, Chul-Ho (Department of Golf Industry, Kyung Hee University) ;
  • Yoo, Chung-Keyng (Instruction and Golf Player Development, Korea Golf University) ;
  • Jung, Chan-Kyoung (Instruction and Golf Player Development, Korea Golf University)
  • 범철호 (경희대학교 골프산업학과) ;
  • 유충경 (한국골프대학 경기지도학과) ;
  • 정찬경 (한국골프대학 경기지도학과)
  • Received : 2016.12.16
  • Accepted : 2017.02.20
  • Published : 2017.02.28

Abstract

The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship among perfectionism, stress, and burnout in college golf athletes. Participants were 221 college students. Self-oriented perfectionism and socially prescribed perfectionism were found to be the antecedent variables causing stress. Self-oriented perfectionism reduced personal accomplishments, and socially prescribed perfectionism increased the level of burnout. Additionally, perceived stress not only engendered emotional exhaustion but also reduced personal accomplishments. Regarding indirect effects, self-oriented perfectionism and socially prescribed perfectionism increased the level of stress and affected athletes' emotional exhaustion and lack of accomplishments. The results will be of use for helping athletes to escape from the perfectionism that occurs due to their obsession with winning, thus laying the foundation for athletes to continue to enjoy their sports.

Keywords

Perfectionism;stress;burnout;college;golf athletes;convergence study

References

  1. P. R. Appleton, & A. P. Hill, "Perfectionism and athlete burnout in junior elite athletes: The mediating role of motivation regulations." Journal of Clinical Sport Psychology, Vol. 6, pp. 129-145, 2012. https://doi.org/10.1123/jcsp.6.2.129
  2. D. Gould, K. Dieffenbach, & A. Moffett, "Psychological characteristics and their development in Olympic champions." Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, Vol. 14, No. 3, pp. 172-204, 2002. https://doi.org/10.1080/10413200290103482
  3. S. H. Jegal, "Relation between participation on golf perfectionistic disposition and mental health." Master's thesis. Kyungwon University, Seongnam, Korea, 2006.
  4. A. R. Pacht, "Reflections on perfection." American Psychologist, Vol. 39, pp. 386-390, 1984. https://doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.39.4.386
  5. P. L. Hetitt, & D. G. Dyck, "Perfectionism, stress, and vulnerability to depression." Cognitive Theory and Research, Vol. 10. pp. 137-142, 1986. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01173389
  6. R. E. Smith, "Toward a cognitive-affective model of athletic burnout." Journal of Sport Psychology, Vol. 8, pp. 36-50, 1986. https://doi.org/10.1123/jsp.8.1.36
  7. S. L. Cresswell, & R. C. Eklund, "Athelete burnout: A longitudinal qualitative study." Sport Psychologist, Vol. 21, No. 1, pp. 1-20, 2007. https://doi.org/10.1123/tsp.21.1.1
  8. G. L. Flett, & P. L. Hewitt, "Perfectionism. Washington DC: American Psychological Association," 2002.
  9. J. Stoeber, & J. H. Childs, "The assessment of self-oriented and socially prescribed perfectionism: Subscales make a difference." Journal of Personality Assessment, Vol. 92, No. 6, pp. 577-585, 2010. https://doi.org/10.1080/00223891.2010.513306
  10. D. D. Burns, "The perfectionist's script for self-defeat." Psychology Today, Vol. 14, No. 6, pp.34-52, 1980.
  11. H, Yang, & J. Stoeber, "The physical appearance perfectionism scale: Development and preliminary validation." Journal of Psychopathology, Vol 34, No. 1, pp. 69-83, 2012.
  12. J. K. Kang, S. N. Jeon, & H. Shin, "The influence of self perfectionism, depression and hopelessness on suicidal ideation in university students." The Journal of Digital Policy & Management, Vol. 11, No. 10, pp.527-536, 2013.
  13. H. O. Kim, Y. J. Koo, & E. Park, "The influence on mental health of college students by their perceived stress, stress coping, perfectionism, and self esteem." The Journal of Digital Policy & Management, Vol. 13, No. 2, pp.257-266, 2015.
  14. M. E. Kim, & K. Lim, "Analysis of factors for learning satisfaction based on gender in online graduate university settings." Journal of Digital Convergence, Vol. 13, No. 4,, pp.33-42, 2015.
  15. P. L. Hewitt, & G. L. Flett, "Perfectionism in the self and social contexts: Conceptualization, assessment, and association with psychopathology." Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Vol. 50, pp. 456-470, 1991.
  16. H. K. Hall, "Perfectionism: A hallmark quality of world class performers, or a psychological impediment to athletic development" In D. Hackfort & G. Tenenbaum (Eds.), Perspectives in sport and exercise psychology: Essential processes for attaining peak performance. Vol, 1, pp. 178-211. Oxford, UK: Meyer & Meyer Publishers, 2006.
  17. J. Stoeber, & K. Otto, "Positive conceptions of perfectionism: Approaches, evidence and challenges." Personality and Social Psychology Review, Vol. 10, pp. 295-319, 2006. https://doi.org/10.1207/s15327957pspr1004_2
  18. G. L. Flett,, & P. L. Hewitt, "The perils of perfectionism in sports and exercise." Current Directions in Psychological Science, Vol. 14, pp. 14-18, 2005. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.0963-7214.2005.00326.x
  19. T. S. Greenspan,. "Making sense of error: A view of the origins and treatment of perfectionism." American Journal of Psychotherapy, Vol. 62, pp. 263-282, 2008. https://doi.org/10.1176/appi.psychotherapy.2008.62.3.263
  20. A. P. Hill, H. K. Hall, & P. R. Appleton, "The relationship between multidimensional perfectionism and contingencies of self-worth. Personality and Individual Differences, Vol. 50, pp. 238-242, 2011. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2010.09.036
  21. S. J. Blatt, "The destructiveness of perfectionism: Implications for the treatment of depression." American Psychologist, Vol. 50, pp. 1020-1030, 1995.
  22. R. O. Frost, P. A. Marten, C. Lahart, & R. Rosenblate, "The dimensions of perfectionism." Cognitive Therapy and Research, Vol. 14, pp. 449-468, 1990. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01172967
  23. J. H. Childs, & J. Stoeber, "Do you want me to be perfect? Two longitudinal studies on socially prescribed perfectionism, stress and burnout in the workplace." Work and Stress, Vol. 26, No. 4, pp. 347-364, 2012. https://doi.org/10.1080/02678373.2012.737547
  24. W. Schafer, W. "Stress management for wellness (3rd ed.)." New York: Harcourt Brace, 1996.
  25. H. Selye, H. Stress. Montreal: Acta, 1950.
  26. H. Selye, The stress concept and some of its implications. In V. Hamilton &D. Warburton (Eds.), Human stress and cognition: An information processing approach (pp. 11-32). Chichester: Wiley, 1979.
  27. S. H. Lim, "An empirical study on relationships among stress, mindfulness and life satisfaction among university students across university class levels." The Journal of Digital Policy & Management, Vol. 11, No. 2, pp.193-199, 2013.
  28. H. H. Kim, & Y. S. Hwang, "The analysis of relationships between developmental assets, stress and risk behaviors of university students." The Journal of Digital Policy & Management, Vol. 12, No. 6, pp.625-635, 2014.
  29. M. K. Kim, "The relationship of multicultural adolescents' stress, depression, family resilience and Internet game addiction." Journal of the Korea Convergence Society, Vol. 7, No. 1, pp.205-210, 2016.
  30. J. I. Kim, & B. R. Choi, "Convergence study on emotional labor, stress response and turnover intention of call-center worker." Journal of the Korea Convergence Society, Vol. 6, No. 6, pp.139-146, 2015.
  31. D. E. Lee, "Understanding leadership." Gasan-dong, Geumcheon-gu, Seoul, Korea: Moonyoung, 2011.
  32. D. A. Feigley, "Psychological burnout in high-level athletes." The Physician and Sport Medicine, Vol. 12, pp. 108-119, 1984. https://doi.org/10.1080/00913847.1984.11701971
  33. D. Gould, E. Udry, S. Tuffey, & J. Loehr, "Burnout in competitive junior tennis players: I. A quantitative psychological assessment." The Sport Psychologist, Vol. 10, pp. 322-340, 1996. https://doi.org/10.1123/tsp.10.4.322
  34. K. P. Henschen, "Athletic staleness and burnout: Diagnosis, prevention, and treatment. In J.M. Williams (Ed.), Applied sport psychology: Personal growth to peak performance (3rd ed., pp. 398-408)." Mountain View, CA: Mayfield Publishing Company, 1998.
  35. L. K. Bunker, R. J. Rotella, & A. S. Reilly, "Sport psychology: Psychological considerations in maximizing sport performance." Ann Arbor, MI: McNaughton & Guinn Inc, 1985.
  36. T. D. Raedeke, K, Lunney, & K. Venables, "Understanding athlete burnout: Coach perspectives." Journal of Sport Behavior, Vol. 25, pp. 181-201, 2002.
  37. C. Maslach, S. E. Jackson, M. P. Leiter, "MBI: The Maslach Burnout Inventory: Manual, Consulting Psychologists Press." Palo Alto, CA, 1996,
  38. K. Goodger, T, Gorely, C. Harwood, & D, Lavallee, D. "Burnout in sport: A systematic review." The Sport Psychologist, Vol. 21, pp. 127-151, 2007. https://doi.org/10.1123/tsp.21.2.127
  39. T. D. Raedeke, & A. L. Smith, "Coping resources and athlete burnout: An examination of stress mediated and moderation hypotheses." Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, Vol. 26, pp. 525-541, 2004. https://doi.org/10.1123/jsep.26.4.525
  40. C. Maslach, "Burnout: The cost of caring." Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1982.
  41. G. L. Flett, P. L. Hewitt, K. R. Blankstein, & S. O'Brien, "Perfectionism and learned resourcefulness in depression and self-esteem." Personality and Individual Differences, Vol. 12, pp. 61-68, 1991. https://doi.org/10.1016/0191-8869(91)90132-U
  42. K. Y. Han, "Multidimensional perfectionism: Concept, measurement, and maladjustment." Ph.D. dissertation, Korea University, Seoul, 1993.
  43. P. L. Hewitt, & G. L. Flett, "Perfectionism and depression: A multidimensional analysis." Journal of Social Behavior and Personality, Vol. 5, pp. 423-438, 1990.
  44. S. Cohen, T. Kamarck, & R. Mermelstein, R. "A global measure of perceived stress." Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 24, 386-396, 1983.
  45. J. E. Lee, "The effects of self-complexity and self-efficacy on depression and perceived stress." Unpublished master's thesis. Ajou University, Suwon, Korea, 2005.
  46. L. K. Fender, "Athletic burnout: Potential for research and intervention strategies." The Sport Psychologist, Vol. 3, No. 1, pp. 63-71, 1989. https://doi.org/10.1123/tsp.3.1.63
  47. G. L. Flett, P. L. Hewitt, & D. G. Dyck, "Self-oriented perfectionism, neuroticism and anxiety." Personality and Individual Differences, 10, 731-735, 1989. https://doi.org/10.1016/0191-8869(89)90119-0
  48. A. P. Hill, H. K. Hall, P. R. Appleton., & S. A. Kozub, "Perfectionism and burnout in junior elite soccer players: The mediating influence of unconditional self-acceptance." Psychology of Sport and Exercise, Vol. 9, pp. 630-644, 2008. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychsport.2007.09.004
  49. A. P. Hill, & P. R. Appleton, "The predictive ability of the frequency of perfectionistic cognitions, self-oriented perfectionism, and socially prescribed perfectionism in relation to symptoms of burnout in youth rugby players." Journal of Sports Sciences, Vol. 29, pp. 695-703, 2011. https://doi.org/10.1080/02640414.2010.551216
  50. A. Hill, H. K. Hall, P. R. Appleton, & J. J. Murray, "Perfectionism and burnout in canoe polo and kayak slalom athletes: The mediating influence of validation and growth-seeking." The Sport Psychologist, Vol. 24, pp. 16-34, 2010. https://doi.org/10.1123/tsp.24.1.16
  51. P. J. Cohn, "An exploratory study on sources of stress and athlete burnout in youth golf." The Sports Psychologist, Vol. 4, No. 2, pp. 95-106, 1990. https://doi.org/10.1123/tsp.4.2.95
  52. Y. H. So, & J. H. Jung, "Relationship between perfectionism, exercise stress, and goal orientation of college athletes." Korean Journal of Physical Education, Vol. 49, No. 4, pp. 153-165, 2010.
  53. D. N. Kim, "The devise to improve golf education policies by analyzing problems in educating junior golfers." Unpublished Master's thesis. Pusan University of Foreign Studies, Pusan, Korea, 2004.