Simultaneous Control of Frequency Fluctuation and Battery SOC in a Smart Grid using LFC and EV Controllers based on Optimal MIMO-MPC

  • Pahasa, Jonglak (Department of Electrical Engineering, School of Engineering, University of Phayao) ;
  • Ngamroo, Issarachai (Department of Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, King Mongkut's Institute of Technology Ladkrabang)
  • Received : 2015.12.05
  • Accepted : 2017.01.14
  • Published : 2017.03.01


This paper proposes a simultaneous control of frequency deviation and electric vehicles (EVs) battery state of charge (SOC) using load frequency control (LFC) and EV controllers. In order to provide both frequency stabilization and SOC schedule near optimal performance within the whole operating regions, a multiple-input multiple-output model predictive control (MIMO-MPC) is employed for the coordination of LFC and EV controllers. The MIMO-MPC is an effective model-based prediction which calculates future control signals by an optimization of quadratic programming based on the plant model, past manipulate, measured disturbance, and control signals. By optimizing the input and output weights of the MIMO-MPC using particle swarm optimization (PSO), the optimal MIMO-MPC for simultaneous control of the LFC and EVs, is able to stabilize the frequency fluctuation and maintain the desired battery SOC at the certain time, effectively. Simulation study in a two-area interconnected power system with wind farms shows the effectiveness of the proposed MIMO-MPC over the proportional integral (PI) controller and the decentralized vehicle to grid control (DVC) controller.


Load frequency control;Electric vehicle;State of charge;Model predictive control;Particle swarm optimization


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