DOI QR코드

DOI QR Code

Power Flow Study of Low-Voltage DC Micro-Grid and Control of Energy Storage System in the Grid

  • Kim, Dong-Eok (KEPCO Research Institute, Korea Electric Power Corporation)
  • Received : 2016.06.08
  • Accepted : 2016.12.28
  • Published : 2017.03.01

Abstract

DC distribution has several differences compared to AC distribution. DC distribution has a higher efficiency than AC distribution when distributing electricity at the same voltage level. Accordingly, power can be transferred further with low-voltage DC. In addition, power flow in a DC grid system is produced by only a voltage difference in magnitude. Owing to these differences, operation of a DC grid system significantly differs from that of an AC system. In this paper, the power flow problem in a bipolar-type DC grid with unbalanced load conditions is organized and solved. Control strategy of energy storage system on a slow time scale with power references obtained by solving an optimization problem regarding the DC grid is then proposed. The proposed strategy is verified with computer simulations.

References

  1. S. Backhaus, G. W. Swift, S. Chatzivasileiadis, W. Tschudi, S. Glover, M. Starke, J. Wang, M. Yue, and D. Hammerstrom "DC Microgrids Scoping Study: Estimate of Technical and Economic Benefits (March 2015)," US Department of Energy, 2015. [Online]. Available: http://energy.gov/oe/downloads/dcmicrogrids-scoping-study-estimate-technical-andeconomic-benefits-march-2015
  2. P. Savage, R. R. Nordhaus, and S. P. Jamieson, "DC Microgrids: Benefits and Barriers," From Silos to Systems: Issues in Clean Energy and Climate Change, pp. 51-66, 2010.
  3. A.T. Ghareeb, A.A. Mohamed, and O.A. Mohammed, "DC microgrids and distribution systems: An overview," Power and Energy Society General Meeting (PES), IEEE, 2013, pp. 1-5.
  4. K. Hirose, T. Tanaka, T. Babasaki, S. Person, O. Foucault, B. J. Sonnenberg, and M. Szpek, "Grounding concept considerations and recommendations for 400VDC distribution system," Telecommunications Energy Conf. (INTELEC), IEEE, 2011, pp. 1-8.
  5. M. Noritake, K. Yuasa, T. Takeda, H. Hoshi, and K. Hirose, "Demonstrative research on DC microgrids for office buildings," Telecommunications Energy Conf. (INTELEC), IEEE, 2014, pp. 1-5.
  6. P. Nuutinen, T. Kaipia, P. Peltoniemi, A. Lana, A. Pinomaa, P. Salonen, J. Partanen, J. Lohjala, and M. Matikainen, "Experiences from use of an LVDC system in public electricity distribution," Electricity Distribution (CIRED), 2013, pp. 1-4.
  7. H. Kakigano, Y. Miura, T. Ise, and R. Uchida, "DC micro-grid for super high quality distribution - system configuration and control of distributed generations and energy storage devices," Power Electronics Specialists Conf. (PESC), IEEE, 2006, pp. 1-7.
  8. S. Whaite, B. Grainger, and A. Kwasinski, "Power quality in DC power distribution systems and microgrids," Energies, vol. 8, no. 5, pp. 4378-4399, 2015. https://doi.org/10.3390/en8054378
  9. D. Palit and A. Chaurey, "Off-grid rural electrification experiences from South Asia: Status and best practices," Energy for Sustainable Development, vol. 15, no. 13, pp. 266-276, Sept. 2011. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.esd.2011.07.004
  10. T. Mishimaa, I. Taniguchib, H. Tamakic, Y. Kitagawad, K. Yutanie, and K. Suekanef, "A verify-cation of high-efficiency DC micro-grid power systems with high-performance power converters and energy management strategy," Procedia Technology, vol. 18, pp. 47-52, Sept. 2014. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.protcy.2014.11.011
  11. C. Abbey, D. Cornforth, N. Hatziargyriou, K. Hirose, A. Kwasinski, E, Kyriakides, G. Platt, L. Reyes, S. Suryanarayanan, "Powering through the storm: microgrids operation for more efficient disaster recovery," IEEE Power and Energy Magazine, vol. 12, no. 3, pp. 67-76, 2014. https://doi.org/10.1109/MPE.2014.2301514
  12. J. J. Justoa, F. Mwasilua, J. Leeb, J.-W. Jung, "ACmicrogrids versus DC-microgrids with distributed energy resources: A review," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, vol. 24, pp. 387-405, Aug. 2013. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2013.03.067
  13. H. Kakigano, Y. Miura, and T. Ise, "Low-voltage bipolar-type DC micro-grid for super high quality distribution," IEEE Trans. on Power Electrons., vol. 25, no. 12, pp. 3066-3075, Dec. 2010. https://doi.org/10.1109/TPEL.2010.2077682
  14. B. Liu, F. Zhuo, Y. Zhu, and H. Yi, "System operation and energy management of a renewable energy-based DC micro-grid for high penetration depth application," IEEE Trans. on Smart Grid, vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 1147-1155, May 2015. https://doi.org/10.1109/TSG.2014.2374163
  15. N. Eghtedarpour and E. Farjah, "Distributed charge/discharge control of energy storates in a renewableenergy-based DC micro-grid," IET Renewable Power Gen., vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 45-57, Jan. 2014. https://doi.org/10.1049/iet-rpg.2012.0112
  16. S.-y. Lu, L. Wang, T.-M. Lo, and A. V. Prokhorov, "Integration of wind power and wave power generation systems using a DC microgrid," IEEE Trans. on Ind. Applicat., vol. 51, no. 4, July/Aug. 2015.
  17. C. L DeMarco, C. A. Baone, Y. Han, and B. Lesieutre, "Primary and secondary control for high penetration renewables," PSERC Publication, May 2012. [Online]. Available: http://pserc.wisc.edu/recent_publications.aspx
  18. A. R. Bergen and V. Vittal, 'Power systems analysis' (Prentice-Hall Press., 1986, 2nd edn. 2000)
  19. M. Grant and S. Boyd: CVX - MATLAB software for disciplined convex programming, version 2.0 beta. http://cvxr.com/cvx, Sept. 2013.
  20. D.-E. Kim, and M. A. El-Sharkawi "Dynamic equivalent model of wind power plant using an aggregation technique," IEEE Trans. on Energy Conv., vol. 30, no. 4, pp. 1639-1649, Dec. 2015. https://doi.org/10.1109/TEC.2015.2470531