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Comparison of Skin Injury Induced by β- and γ-irradiation in the Minipig Model

  • Kim, Joong-Sun (Lab. of Radiation Exposure and Therapeutics, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences) ;
  • Jang, Hyosun (Lab. of Radiation Exposure and Therapeutics, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences) ;
  • Bae, Min-Ji (Research Center, Dongnam Institute of Radiological & Medical Sciences) ;
  • Shim, Sehwan (Lab. of Radiation Exposure and Therapeutics, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences) ;
  • Jang, Won-Seok (Lab. of Radiation Exposure and Therapeutics, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences) ;
  • Lee, Sun-Joo (Lab. of Radiation Exposure and Therapeutics, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences) ;
  • Park, Sunhoo (Lab. of Radiation Exposure and Therapeutics, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences) ;
  • Lee, Seung-Sook (Lab. of Radiation Exposure and Therapeutics, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences)
  • Received : 2017.08.17
  • Accepted : 2017.10.10
  • Published : 2017.12.31

Abstract

Background: The effects of radiation on tissues vary depending on the radiation type. In this study, a minipig model was used to compare the effects of ${\beta}$-rays from $^{166}Ho$ and ${\gamma}$-rays from $^{60}Co$ on the skin. Materials and Methods: In this study, the detrimental effects of ${\beta}$- and ${\gamma}$-irradiation on the skin were assessed in minipigs. The histopathological changes in the skin from 1 to 12 weeks after exposure to 50 Gy of either ${\beta}$- (using $^{166}Ho$ patches) or ${\gamma}$- (using $^{60}Co$) irradiation were assessed. Results and Discussion: The skin irradiated by ${\beta}$-rays was shown to exhibit more severe skin injury than that irradiated by ${\gamma}$-rays at 1-3 weeks post-exposure; however, while the skin lesions caused by ${\beta}$-rays recovered after 8 weeks, the ${\gamma}$-irradiated skin lesions were not repaired after this time. The observed histopathological changes corresponded with gross appearance scores. Seven days post-irradiation, apoptotic cells in the basal layer were detected more frequently in ${\beta}$-irradiated skin than in ${\gamma}$-irradiated skin. The basal cell density and skin thickness gradually decreased until 4 weeks after ${\gamma}$- and ${\beta}$- irradiation. In ${\beta}$-irradiated skin lesions, and the density and thickness increased sharply back to control levels by 6-9 weeks. However, this was not the case in ${\gamma}$-irradiated skin lesions. In ${\gamma}$-irradiated skin, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) was shown to be expressed in the epidermis, endothelial cells of vessels, and fibroblasts, while ${\beta}$-irradiated lesions exhibited COX-2 expression that was mostly limited to the epidermis. Conclusion: In this study, ${\beta}$-rays were shown to induce more severe skin injury than ${\gamma}$-rays; however, the ${\beta}$-rays-induced injury was largely repaired over time, while the ${\gamma}$-rays-induced injury was not repaired and instead progressed to necrosis. These findings reveal the differential effects of ${\gamma}$- and ${\beta}$-irradiation on skin and demonstrate the use of minipigs as a beneficial experimental model for studying irradiation-induced skin damage.

Acknowledgement

Supported by : Ministry of Education, Science and Technology

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