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Thoracic Irradiation Recruit M2 Macrophage into the Lung, Leading to Pneumonitis and Pulmonary Fibrosis

  • Park, Hae-Ran (Radiation Division for Biotechnology, Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute) ;
  • Jo, Sung-Kee (Radiation Division for Biotechnology, Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute) ;
  • Jung, Uhee (Radiation Division for Biotechnology, Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute)
  • Received : 2017.08.22
  • Accepted : 2017.11.03
  • Published : 2017.12.31

Abstract

Background: Radiation-induced pneumonitis and pulmonary fibrosis are common dose-limiting complications in patients receiving radiotherapy for lung, breast, and lymphoid cancers. In this study, we investigated the characteristics of effective immune cells related to pneumonitis and fibrosis after irradiation. Materials and Methods: After anesthesia, the whole thorax of C57BL/6 mice was irradiated at 14 Gy. The lung tissue and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid were collected at defined time points post-irradiation for the determination of histological and immunohistochemical analysis and inflammatory cell population infiltrated into the lung. Results and Discussion: Whole thoracic irradiation increased the deposition of extracellular matrix (ECM), lung weight, and pleural effusions, which started to die from 4 months later. At 4 months after irradiation, the numbers of macrophages and lymphocytes as well as neutrophils were increased dramatically in the lung. Interestingly, the macrophages that were recruited into the lung after irradiation had an enlarged foamy morphology. In addition, the expressions of chemokines (CCL-2, CCL-3, CXCL-10) for the attraction of macrophages and T cells were higher in the lung of irradiated mice. The high expressions of these chemokines were sustained up to 6 months following irradiation. In thoracic irradiated mice, infiltrated macrophages into the lung had the high levels of Mac-3 antigens on their surface and upregulated the hallmarks of alternatively activated macrophages such as arginase-1 and CD206. Furthermore, the levels of IL-4 and IL-13 were higher in a BAL fluid of irradiated mice. Conclusion: All results show that thoracic irradiation induces to infiltrate various inflammation-related immune cells, especially alternatively activated macrophages, through enhancing the expression of chemokines, suggesting that alternatively activated macrophages are most likely important for leading to pulmonary fibrosis.

Acknowledgement

Supported by : Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI)

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