The Effect of Evaluative Concerns Perfectionism on Resilience: The Joint Moderating Effect of the Social Support and Emotional Intelligence of the Leader

  • 김민경 (서울과학종합대학원대학교 경영학) ;
  • 신제구 (서울과학종합대학원대학교 경영대학)
  • Received : 2017.10.17
  • Accepted : 2017.11.17
  • Published : 2017.12.31


In a competitive organizational environment, members view completing tasks to perfection without mistakes as the requirement for success and good evaluation from others. However, unrealistically strong perfectionism can have negative effects on members' psychological states and organizational performance. This study focuses on evaluative concerns perfectionism, the negative aspect of perfectionism, based on positive psychology theory to explore the positive mechanism that comes into place in the process of strengthening organization members' resilience. For this purpose, we performed a moderated moderation analysis to investigate whether the moderating effect of leaders' social support (primary moderator) is moderated by their emotional intelligence (secondary moderator). To verify our research model, we conducted a two-part survey of 252 employees in various industries with a time interval to minimize the common method bias. Job rank and positive affectivity were set as control variables to identify the clear causal relationship among variables. Our findings showed that first, evaluative concerns perfectionism reduced resilience; second, leaders' social support positively moderated the relationship between evaluative concerns perfectionism and resilience; and third, the leaders' emotional intelligence positively moderated the two-way interaction between evaluative concerns perfectionism and the leaders' social support, confirming a moderated moderation. Our findings suggest the need for leaders to assume multidimensional roles to enhance the positive traits of organization members, especially in today's complex business environment. The implications of our findings are further discussed in relation to knowledge management and the development of organization members who exhibit evaluative concerns perfectionism, along with suggestions for future research.


Supported by : 서울과학종합대학원대학교


  1. Anderson, J. C., and Gerbing, D. W. 1988. "Structural Equation Modeling in Practice: Review and Recommended Two-Step Approach," Psychological Bulletin (103:3), pp. 411-423.
  2. Baik, K. B., Shin, J. G., and Cha, D. O. 1998. "Thirty-Year Leadership Research in Korea: A literature review and critique," Korean Management Review (27:1), pp. 113-156.
  3. Bandura, A. 1982. "Self-efficacy mechanism in human agency," American Psychologist (37:2), pp. 122-147.
  4. Bandura, A. 1997. Self-efficacy: The exercise of control. New York: Freeman.
  5. Bandura, A. 2000. Cultivate self-efficacy for personal and organizational effectiveness. In E. Locke (Ed.), Handbook of principles of organizational behavior: 120-136. Oxford, UK: Blackwell.
  6. Baruch-Feldman, C., Brondolo, E., Ben-Dayan, D., and Schwartz, J. 2002. "Source of social support and burnout, job satisfaction, and productivity," Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, (7:1) pp. 84-93.
  7. Bass, B. M. 1990. Handbook of leadership: A survey of theory and research. New York: Fres Press.
  8. Bass, B. M. 2000. Cognitive, Social and Emotional Intelligence of Transformational Leaders. In Riggio, R. E., Murphy, S. E. and Pirozzolo, F. J. (eds.) Multiple Intelligences and Leadership. pp. 105-118. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
  9. Berg, J. M., Wrzesniewski, A., and Dutton, J. E. 2010. "Perceiving and responding to challenges in job crafting at different ranks: When proactivity requires adaptivity," Journal of Organizational Behavior (31:2/3), pp. 158-186.
  10. Billings, R., and Wroten, S. 1978. "Use of path analysis in industrial/organizational psychology: Criticisms and suggestions," Journal of Applied Psychology (63:6), pp. 677-688.
  11. Blankstein, K. R., and Dunkley, D. M. 2002. Evaluative concerns, self-critical, and personal standards perfectionism: A structural equation modeling. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
  12. Block, J., and Kremen, A. M. 1996. "IQ and ego-resiliency: Conceptual and empirical connections and separateness," Journal of Personality and Social Psychology (70:2), pp. 349-361.
  13. Boal, K. B., and Whitehead, C. J. 1992. A critique and extension of the stratified system theory perspective. In R. L. Phillips & J. G. Hunt (Eds.), Strategic leadership: a multiorganizational-level perspective (pp. 237-255). Westport, CT: Quorum.
  14. Boyatzis, R. E., Goleman, D., and Rhee, K. 2000. Clustering competence in emotional intelligence: Insights from the Emotional Competence Inventory (ECI). Handbook of emotional intelligence, 343-362.
  15. Burke, M. J., Brief, A. P., and George, J. M. 1993. "The role of negative affectivity in understanding relations between self-reports of stressors and strains: A comment on the applied psychology literature," Journal of Applied Psychology (78:3), pp. 402-412.
  16. Burns, D. D. 1980. "The perfectionist's script for self-defeat," Psychology Today, pp. 34-51.
  17. Campbell, J. D., and Paula, A. D. 2002. Perfectionistic self-beliefs: Their relation to personality and goal pursuit. Washington, DC, US: American Psychological Association.
  18. Caruso, D. R., Mayer, J. D., and Salovey, P. 2002. "Relation of an ability measure of emotional intelligence to personality," Journal of Personality Assessment (79:2), pp. 306-320.
  19. Chang, E. C., Watkins, A., and Banks, K. H. 2004. "How Adaptive and Maladaptive Perfectionism Relate to Positive and Negative Psychological Functioning: Testing a Stress Mediation Model in Black and White Female College Students," Journal of Counseling Psychology (51:1), pp. 93-102.
  20. Chen, P. Y., and Spector, P. E. 1991. "Negative affectivity as the underlying cause of correlations between stressors and strains," Journal of Applied Psychology (76:3), pp. 398-407.
  21. Choi, Y. D. 2009. "A study on the antecedents and outcomes of the employee's positive psychological capital in organization," Sogang University Master's degree.
  22. Cobb, S. 1976. "Social Support as a moderator of life stress," Psychosomatic Medicine (38:5), pp. 300-314.
  23. Cohen, S., and Hoberman, H. 1983. "Positive events and social support as buffers of life change," Journal of Applied Social Psychology (13:2), pp. 99-125.
  24. Cohen, S., and Wills, T. A. 1985. "Stress, social support, and the buffering hypothesis," Psychological bulletin (98:2), pp. 310-357.
  25. Cummings, L. L., and Bromiley, P. 1996. The organizational trust inventory(OTI): development and validation. Thousand Oack CA: Sage.
  26. Demaray, M. K., Malecki, C. K., Davidson, L. M., Hodgson, K. K., and Rebus, J. 2005. "The relationship between social support and student adjustment: A longitudinal analysis," Psychology in the School (42:7), pp. 691-706.
  27. Diefendorff, J. M., Croyle, M. H., and Gosserand, R. H. 2005. "The Dimensionality and Antecedents of Emotional Labor Strategies," Journal of Vocational Behavior (66:2), pp. 339-357.
  28. Dormann, c., and Zapf, D. 1999. "Social support, social stressors at work, and depressive symptoms: Testing for main and moderating effects with structural equations in a three wave longitudinal study," Joumal of Applied Psychology (84:6), pp. 874-884.
  29. Dougall, A. L., Hyman, M. C., Mcfeelley, S., and Baum, A. 2001. "Optimism and traumatic stress: The importance of stress and coping," Journal of Applied Social Psychology (31:2), pp. 223-245.
  30. Dunkley, D. M., Blankstein, K. R., Halsall, J., Williams, M., and Winkworth, G. 2000. "The relation between perfectionism and distress: Hassles, coping, and perceived social support as mediators and moderators," Journal of Counseling Psychology (47:4), pp. 437-453.
  31. Dyer, J. G., and McGuinnerss, T. M. 1996. "Resilience: Analysis of the Concept," Archives of Psychiatric Nursing (10:5), pp. 276-282.
  32. En ns , M. W., a nd Cox , B. J. 1999. "Perfectionism and depression symptom severity in major depressive disorder," Behaviour Research and Therapy (37:8), pp. 783-794.
  33. Ericsson, K. 2006. The inflence of experience and deliberate practice on the development of superior expert performance. In The Cambridge handbook of experise and expert performance (pp. 685-706).
  34. Ferrari, J. R. 1992. "Procrastinators and Perfect behavior: An exploratory factor analysis of self-presentation, self-awareness, and self-handicapping components," Jounal of Research in Personality (26:1), pp. 75-84.
  35. Flett, G. L., Hewitt, P. L., Blankstein, K., and O'Brien, S. 1991. "Perfectionism and learned resourcefulness in depression and self-esteem," Personality and Individual Differences (12:1), pp. 61-68.
  36. Flett, G. L., and Hewitt, P. L. 2002. Perfectiomism: Theory, research, and treatment, Washington, DC, US: American Psychological Associaton. xiv pp. 1-435.
  37. Flett, G. L., Besser, A., Davis, R. A., and Hewitt, P. L. 2003. "Dimensions of perfectionism, unconditional self-acceptance, and depression," Journal of Rational Emotive and Cognitive Behavior Therapy (21:2), pp. 119-138.
  38. Fredrickson, B. L. 1998. "What good are positive emotions? Review of General Psychology: Special Issue," New Directions in Research on Emotion (2:3), pp. 300-319.
  39. Fredrickson, B. L. 2001. "The role of positive emotions in positive psychology: The broadenand-build theory of positive emotions," American Psychologist (56:3), pp. 218-226.
  40. Fredrickson, B. L., and Losada, M. F. 2005. "Positive Affect and the Complex Dynamics of Human Flourishing," American Psychologist, (60:7), pp. 678-686.
  41. Frost, R. O., Marten, P., Lahart, C., and Rosenblate, R. 1990. "The dimensions of perfectionism," Cognitive Therapy and Research, (14:5), pp. 449-468.
  42. Frost, R. O., and Marten, P. A. 1990. "Perfectionism and evaluative threat," Cognitive therapy and Research, (14:6), pp. 559-572.
  43. Garmezy, N. 1993. Vulnerability and resilience. In C. C. Funder, R. D. Parke, C. Tomlinson-Keasey, & K. Widaman (Eds.), Studying lives through time: Personality and development (pp.377-398). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association
  44. George, J. 2000. "Emotions and leadership: The role of emotional intelligence," Human Relations (53:8), pp. 1027-1055.
  45. Goleman, D.1998. Working with EmotionalIntelligence, NY, Bantam.
  46. Gray, J. A. 1987. The Psychology of Fear and Stress (2nd ed.): Cambridge University Press.
  47. Hamachek, D. E. 1978. "Psychodynamics of normal and neurotic perfectionism," Psychology (15:1), pp. 27-33.
  48. Hart, K. E., Hittner, J. B., and Paras, K. C. 1991. "Sense of coherence, traitanxiety, and the perceived availability of social support," Journal of Research in Personality, (25:2), pp. 137-145.
  49. Hayes, A. F. 2013. Introduction to mediation, moderation, and conditional process analysis: a regression-based approach. The Guilford Press.
  50. Heller, H., and Mansbach, W. E. 1984. "The Multifaceted Natrue of Social Support in a Community Sample of Elderly Women," Journal of Social Issues, (40:4), pp. 99-112.
  51. Hewitt, P. L., & Flett, G. L. 1991. "Perfectionism in the self and social context: Conceptualization, assessment, and association with psychopathology," Journal of Personality and Social Psychology (60:3), pp. 456-470.
  52. Hollender, M. H. 1965. "Perfectionism," Comprehensive Psychiatry, (6:2), pp. 94-103.
  53. Hollander, E. P. 1979. Leaership and social exchange process. In. Gergen, M. S. Greenberg, & R. H. Wills (Eds.), Social exchange advances in theory and research. New York: Winstorn-Wiley.
  54. Holt, M. K., and Espelage, D. L. 2005. "Social support as a moderator between dating violence victimization and depression/anxiety among African American and Caucasian adolescents," School Psychology Review, (34:3), pp. 309-328.
  55. House, J. S. 1981. Work stress and social support. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.
  56. Im, Y. S., and Park, O. S 2012. "A study on the roles of the emotional intelligence and its interactions in the leader-subordinate dyad," Korean Management Review (41:6), pp. 1261-1293.
  57. Jain, A. K., and Sinha, A. K. 2005. "General health in organizations: Relative Relevarice of Emotional Intlligence, Trust, and Organizatinal Support," International Journal of Stress Management (12:3), pp. 257-273.
  58. Jo, H. I., and Lee, H. A. 2013. "The relation among perfectionism, aoademio engagement and aoademio burnout: The mediating effeots of motives and goal process," Korean Psychological Association (25:3), pp. 575-601.
  59. Jung, M. K. 2012. "Mediating effects of coping styles on the relationship between perfectionism and affect," Daegu University Master's thesis.
  60. Kim, B. Y. 2016. "Knowledge sharing in coworker relateionships: Interaction effect of quality of co-worker exchange and learning goal orientation," Knowledge Management Research (17:4), pp. 147-162.
  61. Kim, S., A., and Min, K., H 2011. "Comparison of three resilience scales and relationship bet ween resi lience a nd emot iona l characteristics," The Korean Psychological Association (25:2), PP. 223-243.
  62. Kim, Y. G. 2016. "The effects of distributed leadership and energizing relationships on organizational citizenship behavior, team commitment and team performance: The role of team resilience and team efficacy as a mediator," Knowledge Management Research (23:5), pp 1-24.
  63. Kim, Y., H., and Seo, S., Y. 2008. "A review of perfectionism: Assessment and Treatment," The Korean Journal of Counseling and Psychotherapy (20:3), pp. 581-613.
  64. Kim, J. H. 2014. "The effects of Leader's feedback on the subordinates' resilience and self-efficacy," Korean Academy of Leadership (5:2), pp. 3-37.
  65. Kim, H. J., and Son, C., N. 2007a. "The mediating effects of stress and repetitive thougths in relationship among evaluative concerns perfectionism, anxiety, and depression," Korean Jounal of Psychology (26:2), pp. 183-205.
  66. Klibert, J., Lamis, D. A., Collins, W., Smalley, K. B., Warren, J. C., Yancey, C. T., and Winterowd, C. 2014. "Resilience mediates the relations between perfectionism and college student distress," Journal of Counseling and Development (92:1), pp. 75-82.
  67. Langford, C. P., Bowsher, J., Maloney, J. P., and Lillis, P. P. 1997. "Social support: a conceptual analysis," Journal of Health and Social Behavior (21:3), pp. 202-218.
  68. Larsen, R. J., and Diener, E. 1987. "Affect intensity as an individual difference characteristic: A review," Journal of Research in Personality, (21:1), pp. 1-39
  69. Lazuras, L., Barkoukis, V., Rodafinos, A., and Tzorbatzoudis, H. 2010. "Predictors of Doping Intentions in Elite-Level Athletes: A Social Cognition Approach," Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology (32:5), pp. 694-710.
  70. Lee, O. H. 2012. "The influence of life stress, ego-resilience and social support on psychological well-being among college students," Korea Youth Research Association (19:1), pp. 29-57.
  71. Lee, D. S., Cho, B. S., Kim, K. T., Kim, S. K., Lee, I. S., and Choi, Y. D. 2009. "A New approach to management studies: application of positive psychology," Korean Academy of Management (17:2), pp. 307-339.
  72. Lee, D. S., and Choi, Y. D. 2010. "A study on antecedents and cosequences of positive psychological capital in organizations," Korean Management Review (39:1), pp. 1-28.
  73. Lee, S. M., and Lee, Y. H. 2015. "The casual relationship between the perfectionism tendency and the resilience of the gymnasts," The Korea Journal of Sports Science (24:2), pp. 403-414.
  74. Luthans, F. 2002a. "The need for and meaning of positive organizational behavior," Journal of Organizational Behavior (23:6), pp. 695-706.
  75. Luthans, F. 2002b. "Positive organizational behavior: Developing and managing psychological strengths,"Academy of Management Executive, (16:1), pp. 57-72.
  76. Luthans, F., Avolio, B. J., Avey, J. B., and Norman, S. M. 2007. "Positive psychological capital: Measurement and relationship with performance and satisfaction," Personnel Psychology (60:3), pp. 541-572.
  77. Luthar, S. S., Cicchetti, D., and Becker, B. 2000. "The construct of resilience: A critical evaluation and guidelines for future work," Child Development (71:3), pp. 543-562.
  78. Luthans, F., and Youssef, C. M. 2007. "Emerging positive organizational behavior," Journal of Management (33:4) pp. 321-349.
  79. Lyu, J. S. 2012. "The structural relationships among social support, family resilience, self-determination, commitment to career choice and career preparation behavior of undergraduate surdents," Chungbuk National University doctorate thesis.
  80. Mahoney, J., and Pandian J, R. 1992. The Resource- Based View Within the Conversation of Strategic Management. Working paper, Department of Business Administration University of Illinois -- Urbana.
  81. Maslach, C., Jackson, S. E., and Leiter, M.P. 1996. MBI: The Maslach Burnout Inventory: Manual, Consulting Psychologists Press, Palo Alto, CA.
  82. Masten A. S. 2001. "Ordinary magic: Resilience processin development," America Psychologist (56:3), pp. 227-239.
  83. Masten, A. S., and Reed, M. G. J. 2002. Resilience in development. In C. R. Snyder & S. J. Lopez (Eds.), Handbook of Positive Psychology, 74-88. New York: Oxford University Press.
  84. Mayer, J. D., and Salovey. P. 1997. What is Emotional Intelligence? In P. Salovey & D. Sluyter(Eds.). Emotional Development and Emotional Intelligenced: Educational implications, New York, Basic Books.
  85. Mischel, W. 1973. "Toward a cognitive social learning reconceptualization of personality," Psychological Review (80:4), pp. 252-283.
  86. Neff, T. J., Critin, J. M., and Brown, P. B. 1999. "Lesson from the top: The search for America's best business leaders," Broadway Business.
  87. Norris, F. H., and Kaniasty, K. 1996. "Received and perceived social support in times of stress: A test of the social support deterioration deterrence model," Journal of Personality and Social Psychoogy (71:3), pp. 498-511.
  88. Ong, A, D., Bergeman, C, S., Bisconti, T, L., and Wallace, K, A. 2006. "Psychological Resilience, Positive Emotions, and Successful Adaptation to Stress in Later Life," Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, (91:4), pp. 730-749.
  89. O'Reilly, C. A., III, and Pfeffer, J. 2000. Hidden value: How great companies achieve extraordinary results with ordinary people, Boston: Harvard Business School Press.
  90. Pacht, A. R. 1984. "Reflection on perfection," American Psychologist, (39:4), pp. 386-390.
  91. Park, W. W., Kim, S. M., Jeong, S. M., and Huh, K. M. 2007. "Causes and remedies of common method bias," Korean Academy of Management (15:1), pp. 89-133.
  92. Podsakoff, P. M., MacKenzie, S. B., Lee, J. Y., and Podsakoff, N. P. 2003. "Common method biases in behavioral research: A critical review of the literature and recommended remedies," Journal of Applied Psychology (88:5), pp. 879-903.
  93. Pfeffer, J. 1998. The human equation: Building profits by putting people first, Boston, MA: Harvard usiness School Press.
  94. Procidano, M. E., and Smith, W. W. 1997. Assessing perceived social support. In G. R. Pierce, B.
  95. Ross, R. R., Altmaier, E. M., and Russell, D. W. 1989. "Job stress, social support, and burnout among counseling center staff," Journal of Counseling Psychology (36:3), pp. 345-351.
  96. Salovey, P., and Mayer. J. D. 1990. "Emotional Intelligence," Imagination, Cognition and Personality (9:3), pp. 185-211.
  97. Salovey, P., Bedell, B. T., Detweiler, J. B., and Mayer, J. D. 1999. "Coping intelligently: Emotional intelligence and the coping process." In C. R. Snyder (Ed.), Coping: The psychology of what works (pp. 141-164). New York: Oxford University Press.
  98. Sarason, L. G., Levine, H. M., Basham, R. B., and Sarason, B. R. 1983. "Assessing social support: The social support questionnaire," Journal of Persona lity and Social Psychology (44:1), pp. 127.
  99. Sarason, B. R., Sarason, I. G., and Pierce, G. R. 1990. "Traditional views of social support and their impact on assessment." In B. R. Sarason, I. G. Sarason, & G. R. Pierce (Eds.), Social support: An interactional view (pp. 9-25). New York: Wiley.
  100. Sarason, I. G., Sarason, B. R., Brock, D. M., and Pierce, G. R. 1996. "Social support: Current status, Current issues." In I. G. S. Charles D. Spielberger (Ed.), Stress and Emotion: Anxiety, Anger, & Curiosity (pp. 3-27). Taylor & Francis.
  101. Settoon, R. P., Bennett, N., and Liden, R. C. 1996. "Social exchange in organizations: Perceived organizational support, leadermember exchange, and employee reciprocity," Journal of Applied Psychology (81:3), pp. 219-227.
  102. Scott, B. A., and Barnes, C. M. 2011. "A multilevel field investigation of emotional labor, affect, work withdrawal, and gender," Academy of Management Journal (54:1), pp. 116-136.
  103. Scott, B. A., and Barnes, C. M., and Wagner, D. T. 2012. "Chameleonic or Consistent? A multilevel investigation of emotional labor variability and self-monitoring," Academy of Management Journal (55:4), pp. 905-926.
  104. Shin, J. W., and Yang, N. M. 2016. "The impact of maladaptive perfectionism on life satisfaction in college student: Mediating effect of ego-resilience and active coping," Korean Journal of Counseling (17:1), pp. 265-286.
  105. Slaney, R. B., Ashby, J. S., and Trippi, J. 1995. "Perfectionism: Its measurement and career relevance," Journal of Career Assessment (3:4), pp. 279-297.
  106. Slaski, M., and Cartwright, S. 2002. "Health, performance and emotional intelligence: an exploratory study of retail managers," Stress and Health (18:2), pp. 63-68.
  107. Smith, B. W., Dalen, J., Wiggins, K., Tooley, E., Christopher, P., and Bernard, J. 2008. "The brief resilience scale: Assessing the ability to bounce back," International Journal of Behavioral Medicine (15:3), pp. 194-200.
  108. Snyder, M., and Lckes, W. 1985. Personality and social behavior. In G. Lindzey, & E. Aronson (Eds.), The handbook of social psychology, Vol. 2, 883-947. New York, Randon House.
  109. Solomon, L. J., and Rothblum, E. D. 1984. "Academic procrastination: frequency and cognitive-behavioral correlates," Journal of Counseling Psychology (31:4). pp. 503-509.
  110. Son, S. Y., L, S., P, H., and Y, S. H. 2010. "The effects of self-oriented perfectionism, perceived organizational support, and abusive supervision on task performance," Korean Academy of Management (18:2), pp. 139-177.
  111. Spector, P. E. 1987. "Method variance as an artifact in self-reported affect and perceptions at work: Myth or significant problem?," Journal of Applied Psychology (72:3), pp. 438-443.
  112. Staw, B. M., Sutton, R. L., and Pelled, L. H.1994. "Employee Positive Emotion and Favorable Outcomes at the Workplace," Organization Science (5:1), pp. 51-71.
  113. Tett, R. P., and Guterman, H. A. 2000. "Situation trait relevance, trait expression, and cross-situational consistency: Testing a principle of trait activation," Journal of Research in Personality (34:4), pp. 397-423.
  114. Tugade, M. M., and Fredrickson, B. L. 2004. "Resilient individuals use positive emotions to bounce back from negative emotional experience," Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, (86:2), pp. 320-333.
  115. Turner, R, J. 1981. "Social support as a contingency in psychological well-being," Journal of Health and Social Behavior (22:4), pp. 357-367.
  116. Van Dam, N. T., Sheppard, S. C., Forsyth, P., and Earleywine, M. 2011. "Self-compassion is a better predictor than mindfulness of symptom severity and quality of life in mixed anxiety and depression," Journal of Anxiety Disorder (25:1), pp. 123-130.
  117. Vangelisti, A. L. 2009. "Challenges in conceptualizing social support," Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, (26:1), pp. 39-51.
  118. Wang, H., Law, K. S., Hackett, R. D., Wang, D., and Chen, Z. X. 2005. "Leadermember exchange as a mediator of the relationship between transformational leadership and followers' performance and citizenship behavior," Academy of Management Journal (48:3), pp. 420-432.
  119. Wang, Y., Kraut, R., and Levine, J. M. 2012. "To stay or leave? The relationship of emotional and informational support to commitment in online health support groups," Proceedings of the ACM 2012 Conference on computer Supported Cooperative Work, pp. 833-842.
  120. Wentzel, K., Battle, A., Russell, S., and Looney, L. 2010. "Social support from teachers and peers as predictors of academic and social motivation," Contemporary Educational Psychology (35:3), pp. 193-202.
  121. Wong, C. S., and Law, S. L. 2002. "The effect of leader and follower emotional intelligence on performance and attitude: An exploratory study," The Leadership Quarterly (13:3), pp. 243-274.
  122. Wright, T. A. 2003. "Positive organizational behavior: An idea whose time has truly come," Journal of Organizational Behavior (24:4), pp. 437-442.
  123. Wu, T. F., and Wei, M. 2008. "Perfectionism and negative mood: The mediating roles of validation rrom others versus self," Journal of Counseling Psychology (55:2), pp. 276-288.
  124. Yukl, G. 2006. Leadership in organizations. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.