DOI QR코드

DOI QR Code

An Empirical Study on the Relationships among Employee Silence, Learning Inertia, and Knowledge Sharing Disengagement

구성원 침묵, 학습관성, 지식공유 비열의 간의 관계에 관한 실증연구

  • Received : 2017.06.28
  • Accepted : 2017.11.05
  • Published : 2017.12.31

Abstract

It found that employee silence negatively impacts both organizations and their employees as shown in findings from many studies and recently there has been a growing interest in it. Silence is described as intentionally withholding job-related ideas, information, concerns, and opinions. Employee silence may decrease organizational change and innovation and reduce employee learning motivation and knowledge sharing engagement as well. The purpose of this study is to examine the relationships among silence motivations, perceived silence climate, and employee silence; the relationships among employee silence, learning inertia and knowledge sharing disengagement; the mediating role of employee silence between antecedents of employee silence and consequences additionally. The results that analyzed using data from 225 employees in 42 organizations are as follows. First, the impact of silence motivation and perceived silence climate on employee silence are positively significant. Second, the influence of defensive silence motivation on the acquiescent and relational silence motivation is positively significant. Third, the influence of employee silence on learning inertia and knowledge sharing disengagement is positively significant. Forth, employee silence mediates the relationship between silence motivation and perceived silence climate and learning inertia and knowledge sharing disengagement. These results suggest that employee silence is another strong expression and message for organizations to try to establish a learning organization from the perspective of knowledge management.

References

  1. 강갑원, 김정희, 김종백, 박희순, 이경숙, 이경화 2013. 교육심리학: 이론과 실제, 서울: 시그마프레스
  2. 고대유 2014. "조직문화 인식이 조직침묵에 미치는 영향-해양경찰조직을 중심으로," 경희대학교 행정학 박사학위논문.
  3. 김상희 2016. "침묵은 금? 고객침묵, 강력하고 영향력 있는 고객의 또 다른 메시지," 경영학연구, (45:2), pp. 557-592.
  4. 김효창, 이지연 2009. 학습심리학, 서울: 학지사
  5. 대한상공회의소 2017. "국내기업의 회의문화실태와 개선해법 보고서," 경제자료/보도자료, 02.27.
  6. 박종철, 권봉헌 2014. "호텔기업의 조직풍토에 따른 종사원의 직무스트레스가 심리적 소진에 미치는 영향," 관광연구저널, (28:12), pp. 185-201.
  7. 서현주, 박종훈, 양희동, 신경식 2005. "사용자의 흡수능력이 ERP 사용성과에 미치는 영향: 지식이전 관점," 경영학연구, (34:3), pp. 651-681.
  8. 설현도 2006. "금융기관 조직구성원의 지식공유에 대한 실증연구," 지식경영연구, (7:2), pp. 97-122.
  9. 세계일보 2015. "침묵하는 한국사회," 2015 01/19 A1.
  10. 심덕섭, 최지호, 양동민, 문연희 2011. "집단 내 갈등(관계갈등과 과업갈등)의 개념 구성과 인과경로에 관한 연구," 대한경영학회지, (24:3), pp. 1287-1307.
  11. 장영희 2012. "비언어 의사소통으로서의 침묵의 기능과 의미 분석을 통한 분류," 어문논집, 50집, pp. 151-174.
  12. 정현선 2013. "침묵과 발언 행동의 변별성: 측정 모형 비교 및 침묵 행동의 증분설명력," 한국심리학회지: 문화 및 사회문제, (19:1), pp. 1-17.
  13. 정현선, 박동건 2013. "종업원 침묵의 전염: 방어적 및 체념적 침묵을 중심으로," 한국심리학회지: 산업 및 조직, (26:1), pp. 73-10.
  14. 조아름, 유태용 2014. "종업원 침묵행동과 상사지원인식, 절차공정성 인식의 관계에서 침묵동기의 매개효과," 한국심리학회지: 산업 및 조직, (27:2), pp. 291-315.
  15. 주재진 2016. "조직풍토가 경찰공무원의 직무만족에 미치는 영향: 변혁적 리더십의 조절효과," 사회과학연구, (23:3), pp. 251-272.
  16. 허명숙, 천면중 2015a. "구성원의 민첩성과 업무성과 간의 관계에 관한 실증연구: 민첩성의 영향요인과 지식지향 리더십을 중심으로," 지식경영연구, (16:2), pp. 139-172. https://doi.org/10.15813/kmr.2015.16.2.007
  17. 허명숙, 천면중 2015b. "구성원들의 학습관성, 폐기학습, 지식통합능력, 혁신행동 간의 관계에 관한 실증연구," 지식경영연구, (16:2), pp. 249-278. https://doi.org/10.15813/kmr.2015.16.2.012
  18. Amah, O. E., and Okafor, C. A. 2008. "Relationships Among Silence Climate, Employee Silence Behavior and Work Attitudes: The Role of Self-Esteem and Locus of Control," Asian Journal of Scientific Research, (1:1), pp. 1-11. https://doi.org/10.3329/jsr.v1i1.1684
  19. Ardichvili, A., Page, V., and Wentling, T. 2003. "Motivation and Barriers to Participation in Virtual Knowledge-Sharing Communities of Practice," Journal of K nowledge Management, (7:1), pp. 64-77.
  20. Ashford, S. J., and Barton, M. A. 2007. "Identity-Based Issue Selling," Identity and the Modern Organization, pp. 223-244.
  21. Ashforth, B, E., and Lee, R. T. 1990. "Defensive Behaviors in Organizations: A Preliminary Model," Human Relations, (43:7), pp. 621-648. https://doi.org/10.1177/001872679004300702
  22. Bagozzi, R. P., and Yi, Y. 1988. "On the Evaluation of Structural Equation Models," Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, (16:1), pp. 74-94. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02723327
  23. Beer, M., and Eisenstat, R. 2000. "The Silent Killers of Strategy Implementation and Learning," Sloan Management Review, (41), pp. 29-40.
  24. Bock, G. W., Zmud, R. W., Kim, Y. G., and Lee, J. N. 2005. "Behavioral Intention Formation in Knowledge Sharing: Examining the Roles of Extrinsic Motivators, Social-Psychological Forces, and Organizational Climate," MIS Quarterly, (29:1), 87-111. https://doi.org/10.2307/25148669
  25. Boroff, K. E., and Lewin, D. 1997. "Loyalty, Voice, and Intent to Exit a Union Firm: A Conceptual and Empirical Analysis," ILR Review, (51:1), pp. 50-63. https://doi.org/10.1177/001979399705100104
  26. Brinsfield, C. T. 2009. Employee Silence: Investigation of Dimensionality, Development of Measures, and Examination of Related factor, Doctoral dissertation, The Ohio State University
  27. Brinsfield, C. T., Edwards, M. S., and Greenberg, J. 2009. "Voice and Silence in Organizations: Historical Review and Current Conceptualizations," Voice and Silence in Organizations , Ed. Greenberg, J., and Edwards, M. S., Howard House, Wagon lane, Bingley BD16.
  28. Brinsfield, C. T. 2013. "Employee Silence Motives: Investigation of Dimensionality and Development of Measures," Journal of Organizational Behavior, (34:5), pp. 671-697. https://doi.org/10.1002/job.1829
  29. Cabrera, E. F., and Cabrera, A. 2005. "Fostering Knowledge Sharing through People Management Practices," The International Journal of Human Resource Management, (16:5), pp.720-735. https://doi.org/10.1080/09585190500083020
  30. Choi, J. H., Lev, B., and Kim, H. L. 2014. "Exploring Determinants of Knowledge Sharing in a Social Network of Practice," Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on Management Science and Engineering Management: Springer, pp. 39-51.
  31. Chow, W. S., and Chan, L. S. 2008. "Social Network, Social Trust and Shared Goals in Organizational Knowledge Sharing," Information & Management, (45:7), pp. 458-465. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.im.2008.06.007
  32. Christian, M. S., and Slaughter, J. E. 2007. "Work Engagement: A Meta-Analytic Review and Directions for Research in an Emerging Area," Academy of Management Proceedings, pp. 1-6.
  33. Cotton, J. L., Vollrath, D. A., Froggatt, K. L., Lengnick-Hall, M. L., and Jennings, K. R. 1988. "Employee Participation: Diverse Forms and Different Outcomes", Academy of Management Review, (13/1), pp. 8-22. https://doi.org/10.5465/amr.1988.4306768
  34. Dedahanov, A. T., and Rhee, J. 2015. "Examining the Relationships among Trust, Silence and Organizational Commitment," Management Decision, (53:8), pp. 1843-1857. https://doi.org/10.1108/MD-02-2015-0041
  35. Dedahanov, A. T., Lee, D., Rhee, J., and Yusupov, S. 2016. "An Examination of the Associations among Cultural Dimensions, Relational Silence and Stress," Personnel Review, (45:3), pp. 593-604. https://doi.org/10.1108/PR-08-2014-0189
  36. Detert, J. R., and Burris, E. R. 2016. "Can Your Employees Really Speak Freely?," Harvard Business Review, January-February, pp. 80-87.
  37. Dweck, C. S., and Reppucci, N. D. 1973. "Learned Helplessness and Reinforcement Responsibility in Children," Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, (25:1), pp. 109-116. https://doi.org/10.1037/h0034248
  38. Dyer, J. H., Gregersen, H. B. and Christensen, C. M. 2009. "The Innovator's DNA," Harvard Business Review, (87), pp. 61-67.
  39. Edmondson, A. C. 2003. "Speaking up in the Operating Room: How Team Leaders Promote Learning in Interdisciplinary Action Teams," Journal of Management Studies , (40:6), pp. 1419-1452. https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-6486.00386
  40. Edwards, M. S., Ashkanasy, N. M., and Gardner, J. 2009. "Deciding to Speak up or to Remain Silent Following Observed Wrongdoing: The Role of Discrete Emotions and Climate of Silence," Voice and Silence in Organizations, pp. 83-109.
  41. Ehtiyar, R., and Yanardag, M. 2008. "Organizational Silence: A Survey on Employees Working in a Chain Hotel," Tourism and Hospitality Management, (14:1), pp. 51-68.
  42. Folkman, S., and Lazarus, R. S. 1980. "An Analysis of Coping in a Middle-Aged Community Sample," Journal of Health and Social Behavior, (21), pp. 219-239. https://doi.org/10.2307/2136617
  43. Ford, D. P. 2008. "Disengagement from Knowledge Sharing: The Alternative Explanation for Why People are not Sharing," Administrative Sciences Association of Canada Annual Conference, (29:5), pp. 114-137.
  44. Ford, D. P., and Staples, D. S. 2008. "What is Knowledge Sharing from the Informer' s Perspective?," International Journal of Knowledge Management, (4:4), pp. 1-20. https://doi.org/10.4018/jkm.2008100101
  45. Ford, D., Myrden, S. E., and Jones, T. D. 2015. "Understanding Disengagement from Knowledge Sharing: Engagement Theory versus Adaptive Cost Theory," Journal of Knowledge Management, (19:3), pp. 476-496. https://doi.org/10.1108/JKM-11-2014-0469
  46. Fornell, C., and Larcker, D. F. 1981. "Valuating Structural Equation Models with Unobservable Variables and Measurement Error," Journal of Marketing Research, (18:1), pp. 39-50. https://doi.org/10.1177/002224378101800104
  47. Gephart, K. J. J., Detert, J. R., Trevino, L. K., and Edmondson, A. C. 2009. "Silence by Fear: The Nature, Sources and Consequences of Fear at Work," Research in Organizational Behavior, (29), pp. 163-193. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.riob.2009.07.002
  48. Greenberg, J., and Baron, R. A. 2008, Behavior in Organization, 9th Education, Pearson Education.
  49. Greenberger, D. B., and Strasser, S. 1986. "The Development and Application of a Model of Personal Control in Organizations," Academy of Management Review, (11), pp. 164-177. https://doi.org/10.5465/amr.1986.4282657
  50. Hair, J. F., Black, W.C., Babin, B. J., Anderson, R. E., and Tatham, R. L. 2006. Multivariate Data Analysis, 6th ed. Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, New Jersey.
  51. Hansen, M. T. 1999. "The Search-Transfer Problem: The Role of Weak Ties in Sharing Knowledge Across Organization Subunits," Administrative Science Quarterly, (44:1), pp. 82-111. https://doi.org/10.2307/2667032
  52. Hau, Y. S., Kim, B., Lee, H., and Kim, Y. G. 2013 "The Effects of Individual Motivations and Social Capital on Employees' Tacit and Explicit Knowledge Sharing Intentions," International Journal of Information Management, (33: 2), pp. 356-366. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijinfomgt.2012.10.009
  53. He, W., and Wei, K. K. 2009. "What Drives Continued K nowledge Sharing? A n Investigation of Knowledge-Contribution and -Seeking Beliefs," Decision Support Systems, (46:4), pp. 826-838. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dss.2008.11.007
  54. Henriksen, K., and Dayton, E. 2006. "Organizational Silence and Hidden Threats to Patient Safety," Health Services Research, (41:4), pp. 1539-1554. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1475-6773.2006.00564.x
  55. Hiroto, D. S., and Seligman, M. E. 1975. "Generality of Learned Helplessness in Man," Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, (31:2), pp. 311-327. https://doi.org/10.1037/h0076270
  56. Holland, P., Cooper, B., and Sheehan, C. 2016. "Employee Voice, Supervisor Support, and Engagement: The Mediating Role of Trust," Human Resource Management, (31), pp. 1-15.
  57. Jafri, M. H., Dem, C., and Choden, S. 2016. "Emotional Intelligence and Employee Creativity: Moderating Role of Proactive Personality and Organizational Climate," Business Perspectives and Research, (4:1), pp. 54-66. https://doi.org/10.1177/2278533715605435
  58. Jehn, K. A. 1995. "A Multimethod Examination of the Benefits and Detriments of Intragroup Conflict," Administrative Science Quarterly, (40:2), pp. 256-282. https://doi.org/10.2307/2393638
  59. Kahn, W. A. 1990. "Psychological Conditions of Personal Engagement and Disengagement at Work," Academy of Management Journal, (33:4), pp. 692-724. https://doi.org/10.2307/256287
  60. Kanter, D. L., and Mirvis, P. H. 1989. The Cynical Americans: Living and Working in an Age of Discontent and Disillusion, Jossey-Bass.
  61. Klingele, W. E., and Lyden, J. A. 2001. "Organizational Health and Teacher Education," The Teacher Educator, (37:2), pp. 100-116. https://doi.org/10.1080/08878730109555285
  62. Knoll, M., and Van Dick, R. 2013. "Do I Hear the Whistle...? A First Attempt to Measure Four Forms of Employee Silence and Their Correlates," Journal of Business Ethics , (113:2), pp. 349-362. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10551-012-1308-4
  63. Kompaso, S. M., and Sridevi, M. S. 2010. "Employee Engagement: The Key to Improving Performance," International Journal of Business and Management, (5:12), pp. 89-96.
  64. Kreitner, R. 1995. Management (6th Ed.). Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company.
  65. Liao, S. H. 2002. "Problem Solving and Knowledge Inertia," Expert Systems with Applications, (22:1), pp. 21-31. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0957-4174(01)00046-X
  66. Liao, S. H, Fei, W. C., and Liu, C. T. 2008. "Relationships between Knowledge Inertia, Organizational Learning and Organization Innovation," Technovation, (28), pp. 183-195. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.technovation.2007.11.005
  67. Llopis, O., and Foss, N. J. 2016. "Understanding the Climate-Knowledge Sharing Relation: The Moderating Roles of Intrinsic Motivation and Job Autonomy," European Management Journal, (34:2), pp. 135-144. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.emj.2015.11.009
  68. Lovelace, K., Shapiro, D. L., and Weingart, L. R. 2001. "Maximizing Cross Functional new Product Teams' Innovativeness and Constraint Adherence: A Conflict Communications Perspective," Academy of Management Journal, (44:4), pp. 779-793. https://doi.org/10.2307/3069415
  69. Macey W. H and Schneider B. 2008. "The Meaning of Employee Engagement," Industrial and Organizational Psychology, (1), pp. 3-30. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1754-9434.2007.0002.x
  70. Maier, S. F., and Seligman, M. E. 2016. "Learned Helplessness at Fifty: Insights from Neuroscience," Psychological Review, (123:4), pp. 349-367. https://doi.org/10.1037/rev0000033
  71. Matschke, C., Moskaliuk, J., Bokhorst, F., Schümmer, T., and Cress, U. 2014. "Motivational Factors of Information Exchange in Social Information Spaces," Computers in Human Behavior, (36), pp. 549-558. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2014.04.044
  72. Miller, W. R., and Seligman, M. E. 1973. "Depression and the Perception of Reinforcement," Journal of Abnormal Psychology, (82:1), pp. 62-73. https://doi.org/10.1037/h0034954
  73. Milliken, F. J., Morrison, E. W., and Hewlin, P. F. 2003. "An Exploratory Study of Employee Silence: Issues that Employees don't Communicate Upward and Why," Journal of Management Studies, (40:6), pp. 1453-1476. https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-6486.00387
  74. Milliken, F. J., and Morrison, E. W. 2003. "Shades of Silence: Emerging Themes and Future Directions for Research on Silence in Organizations," Journal of Management Studies, (40:6), pp. 1563-1568. https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-6486.00391
  75. Monzani, L., Braun, S., and Van Dick, R. 2016. "It Takes Two to Tango: The Interactive Effect of Authentic Leadership and Organizational Identification on Employee Silence Intentions," German Journal of Human Resource Management, (30:3-4), pp. 246-266. https://doi.org/10.1177/2397002216649896
  76. Morrison, E. W., and Milliken, F. J. 2000. "Organizational Silence: A Barrier to Change and Development in a Pluralistic World," Academy of Management Review, (25:4), pp. 706-725. https://doi.org/10.5465/amr.2000.3707697
  77. Morrison, E. W., See, K. E., and Pan, C. 2015. "An Approach‐inhibition Model of Employee Silence: The Joint Effects of Personal Sense of Power and Target Openness," Personnel Psychology, (68:3), pp. 547-580. https://doi.org/10.1111/peps.12087
  78. Myers, G. E., and Myers, M. T. 1992. The Dynamics of Human Communication: A Laboratory Approach, McGraw-Hill.
  79. Nonaka, I. 2007. "The Knowledge-Creating Company," Harvard Business Review, (85:7/8), pp. 162-171.
  80. Oetzel, J. G., and Ting-Toomey, S. 2003. "Face Concerns in Interpersonal Conflict: A Cross-Cultural Empirical Test of the Face Negotiation Theory", Communication Research, (30:6), pp. 599-624. https://doi.org/10.1177/0093650203257841
  81. Park, C., and Keil, M. 2009. "Organizational Silence and Whistle‐Blowing on IT Projects: An Integrated Model," Decision Sciences, (40:4), pp. 901-918. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-5915.2009.00255.x
  82. Pinder, C. C., and Harlos, K. P. 2001. "Employee Silence: Quiescence and Acquiescence as Responses to Perceived Injustice," In Research in Personnel and Human Resources Management, pp. 331-369.
  83. Rahimnia, F., and Sharifirad, M. S. 2014. "Authentic Leadership and Employee WellBeing: The Mediating Role of Attachment Insecurity," Journal of Business Ethics, (132:2), pp. 363-377. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10551-014-2318-1
  84. Rich, B. L., Lepine, J. A., and Crawford, E. R. 2010. "Job Engagement: Antecedents and Effects of Job Performance," Academy of Management Journal, (53:3), pp. 617-635. https://doi.org/10.5465/amj.2010.51468988
  85. Robinson D., Perryman S., and Hayday S. 2004. The Drivers of Employee Engagement Report 408 , Institute for Employment Studies, UK
  86. Roth, S., and Kubal, L. 1975. "Effects of Noncontingent Reinforcement on Tasks of Differing Importance: Facilitation and Learned Helplessness," Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, (32:4), pp. 680-691. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.32.4.680
  87. Schneider, B. 1990. "The Climate for Service: An Application of the Climate Construct," Organizational Climate and Culture," (1), pp. 383-412.
  88. Schneider, B., Ehrhart, M. G., and Macey, W. H. 2013. "Organizational Climate and Culture," Annual Review of Psychology, (64), pp. 361-388. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-psych-113011-143809
  89. Senge, P. 1999. The Dance of Change: The Challenges to Sustaining Momentum in Learning Organizations , Nicholas Brealey Publishing, London.
  90. Schaufeli, W. B., Salanova, M., Gonzalez-Roma, V., and Bakker, A. B. 2002. "The Measurement of Engagement and Burnout: A Two Sample Confirmatory Factor Analytic Approach," Journal of Happiness Studies, (3:1), pp. 71-92. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1015630930326
  91. Simons, T. L., and Peterson, R. S. 2000. "Task Conflict and Relationship Conflict in Top Management Teams: The Pivotal Role of Intragroup Trust," Journal of Applied Psychology, (85:1), pp. 102-111. https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.85.1.102
  92. Slade, M. R. 2008. The Adaptive Nature of Organizational Silence: A Cybernetic Exploration of the Hidden Factory, George Washington University, USA.
  93. Tangirala, S., and Ramanujam, R. 2008. "Employee Silence on Critical Work Issues: The Cross Level Effects of Procedural Justice Climate," Personnel Psychology, (61:1), pp. 37-68. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-6570.2008.00105.x
  94. Tepper, B. J., Moss, S. E., and Duffy, M. K. 2011. "Predictors of Abusive Supervision: Supervisor Perceptions of Deep-level Dissimilarity, Relationship Conflict, and Subordinate Performance," Academy of Management Journal, (54:2), pp. 279-294. https://doi.org/10.5465/amj.2011.60263085
  95. Timming, A. R., and Johnstone, S. 2015. "Employee Silence and the Authoritarian Personality: A Political Psychology of Workplace Democracy," International Journal of Organizational Analysis, (23:1), pp. 154-171. https://doi.org/10.1108/IJOA-06-2013-0685
  96. Ting-Toomey, S., and Kurogi, A. 1998. "Facework Competence in Intercultural Conflict: An Updated Face Negotiation Theory", International Journal of Intercultural Relations, (22:2), pp. 187-225. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0147-1767(98)00004-2
  97. Tjosvold, D. 1991. "Rights and Responsibilities of Dissent: Cooperative Conflict," Employee Responsibilities and Rights Journal, (4:1), pp. 13-23. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01390435
  98. Tracey, J. B., Tannenbaum, S. I., and Kavanagh, M. J. 1995. "Applying Trained Skills on the Job: The Importance of the Work Environment," Journal of Applied Psychology, (80:2), pp. 239-252. https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.80.2.239
  99. Van den Hooff, B., Schouten, A. P., and Simonovski, S. 2012. "What One Feels and What One Knows: The Influence of Emotions on Attitudes and Intentions Towards Knowledge Sharing," Journal of Knowledge Management, (16:1), pp. 148-158. https://doi.org/10.1108/13673271211198990
  100. Van Dyne, L., Ang, S., and Botero, I. C. 2003. "Conceptualizing Employee Silence and Employee Voice as Multi-dimensional Constructs," Journal of Management Studies, (40:6), pp. 1359-1392. https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-6486.00384
  101. Vakola, M., and Bouradas, D. 2005. "Antecedents and Consequences of Organizational Silence: An Empirical Investigation," Employee Relations, (27:5), pp. 441-458. https://doi.org/10.1108/01425450510611997
  102. Wang, Y-D., and Hsieh, H-H. 2013. "Organizational Ethical Climate, Perceived Organizational Support, and Employee Silence: A Cross-Level Investigation," Human Relation, (66:6), pp. 783-802. https://doi.org/10.1177/0018726712460706
  103. Wasko, M. M., and Faraj, S. 2005. "Why Should I Share? Examining Social Capital and Knowledge Contribution in Electronic Networks of Practice," MIS Quarterly, (29:1), pp. 35-57. https://doi.org/10.2307/25148667
  104. Watkin, C., and Hubbard, B. 2003. "Leadership Motivation and the Drivers of Share Price: The Business Case for Measuring Organizational Climate," Leadership and Organization Development Journal, (24:7), pp. 380-386. https://doi.org/10.1108/01437730310498578
  105. Wendell, L. F., Cecil, B., and Robert, Z. A. 2004. Organization Development and Transformation: Managing Effective Change, Osborne: McGraw-Hill/Irwin
  106. Yan, Z., Wang, T., Chen, Y., and Zhang, H. 2016. "Knowledge Sharing in Online Health Communities: A Social Exchange Theory Perspective," Information & Management, (53:5), pp. 643-653. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.im.2016.02.001
  107. Zhang, X., De Pablos, P. O., and Xu, Q. 2014. "Culture Effects on the Knowledge Sharing in Multi-national Virtual Classes: A Mixed Method," Computers in Human Behavior, (31), pp. 491-498. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2013.04.021