노인의 사회인구학적 특성과 신체활동유형에 따른 인지기능, 우울 및 삶의 질

Cognitive Function, Depression and Quality of Life according to the Demographic Characteristics and Physical Activity Type of the Elderly

  • 최재원 (중앙대학교 스포츠과학부) ;
  • 천명업 (중앙대학교 대학원 스포츠산업정보학과) ;
  • 강성구 (중앙대학교 스포츠과학부)
  • Choi, Jae-Won (Division of Sport Science, Chung-Ang University) ;
  • Chun, Myung-Up (Division of Department of Sport Industry & Information, Graduate of Chung-Ang University) ;
  • Kang, Sung-Goo (Division of Sport Science, Chung-Ang University)
  • 투고 : 2017.10.19
  • 심사 : 2017.12.20
  • 발행 : 2017.12.28


본 연구는 65세 이상 노인 148명을 대상으로 하여 사회인구학적요인과 운동참여 유무에 따른 인지기능과 우울, 삶의 질의 차이에 대하여 살펴보았다. 인지기능은 한국판 간이정신상태검사, 숫자 외우기 검사, 선추적 검사, 스트룹 검사를 측정하였고, 심리학적 변인으로는 우울과 삶의 질을 측정하였다. 그 결과 첫째, 노인의 사회인구학적 특성인 연령, 학력, 건강인지에 따라 통계적으로 유의한 차이가 나타났다. 둘째, 운동참여에 따라서는 운동에 참여한 노인이 그렇지 않은 노인에 비해 점수가 높은 것으로 나타났다. 셋째, 운동에 참여하는 노인들의 운동경력, 운동빈도, 운동시간에 따라 유의한 차이가 나타났다. 마지막으로 연구대상자의 인지기능과 우울 및 삶의 질은 상관관계가 있는 것으로 나타났다. 결론적으로 노인들의 풍요로운 노후를 영위하기 위해 노인의 인지기능을 향상시키고 우울을 감소시켜 삶의 질을 높이기 위한 방법으로 규칙적이고 다양한 운동 및 신체활동 프로그램 참여의 필요성이 있다.


노인;운동참여;인지기능;우울;삶의 질


  1. J. H. Moon, A study in to the beauty welfare therapy program development for increasing the self-esteem of the aged in elderly care facilities YoungSan University, Ph.D. thesis, 2014.
  2. Statistical Office, Percentage of elderly population, 2014.
  3. Participatory Government Policy Report ‟The elderly welfare policy -Healthy, lively and energetic old life". Presidential Advisory Policy Planning Committee, 2008.
  4. C. B. Jun, S. Y. Jung, K. L. Cho, "Effects of Korean dance on metabolic risk factors, blood inflammatory markers, and fitness in elderly women" J. of the Korean Gerontology Society, Vol. 33, No. 3, pp. 551-561, 2013.
  5. J. S. Won, J. H. Kim, "Influencing factors on cognitive function and depression in elderly", J. of Korean Academy of Psychiatry and Mental Health Nursing, Vol. 12, No. 2, pp. 148-154, 2003.
  6. Chodosh, J., Miller, M. D., Aneshensel, C., Wight, R., Karlamnagla, A., "Depressive symptoms, chronic diseases, and physical disabilities as predictors of cognitive functioning trajectories in older Americans", J. of American Geriatric Society, Vol. 58, pp. 2350-2357, 2010.
  7. Luck, T., Luppa, M., Briel, S., Matschinger, H., Konig, H. H., Bleich, S., "Mild cognitive impairment incidence and risk factors: Results of the Leipzig Longitudinal study of the aged." J. of American Geriatric Society, Vol. 58, No. 4, pp. 1903-1910, 2010.
  8. J. S. Park, Y. W. Lee, H. S. Kim, "Cognitive Impairment risk factors in elders." J. of Korean Gerontology Nursing, Vol. 17, No. 3, pp. 121-130, 2015.
  9. E. H. Ha, The influencing factors on cognitive impairment of the elderly with dementia at home. ChungAng University, Ph.D. thesis, 2010.
  10. Wang, C. C., Lu, T. H., Liao, W. C., Yuan, S. C., Kuo, P. C., Chuang, H. L., & Yen, C. H. "Cigarette smoking and cognitive impairment: a 10-year cohort study in Taiwan", Archives of gerontology and geriatrics, Vol. 51, No. 2, pp.143-148, 2010.
  11. Y. H. Choi, N. Y. Kim, "The effects of an exercise program using a resident volunteer as a lay health leader for elders' physical fitness, cognitive function, depression, and quality of life". J. of Korean Academy of Community Health Nursing, Vol. 24, No. 3, pp. 345-357, 2013.
  12. Y. K. Kim, H. R. Ghim, "The Effects of a Cognitive Enhancement Program for the Elderly", Korean Psychological Association", Vol. 28, No. 4, 2015.
  13. S. G. Choo, J. H. Yoo, J. R, Lee. "Effects of cognitive-behavioral programs on cognitive function, depression, and daily life performance of the elderly with impaired cognitive functioning", Korean Association of Nursing Science, Vol. 37, No. 7, pp. 1049-1060, 2007.
  14. Rentz, C. A., "Reminiscence A Supportive Intervention for the Person With Alzheimer's Disease", J. of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services. Vol. 22, No. 11, pp. 15-20, 1995.
  15. H. M. Kim, S. Y. Chun, "The Effect of Group Art Therapy through Reminiscence on the Cognitive Function and Depression of the Demented Old People", Art Therapy Research, Vol. 19, No. 5, 2012.
  16. C. I. Jung, Y. S. Kim, H. W. Lee, G. C. Kim, "The Effects of Cooking Art on the Cognitive Function and Depression of the Elderly with Dementia", Korean Association for the Protection of Oriental Medicine. Vol. 15, No. 1, pp. 67-76, 2011.
  17. Y. H. Han, "The effects of group art therapy on the cognitive functions, activities of daily living and neuropsychiatric behaviors of the elderly dementia in the day care center", WonKwang University, Ph.D. thesis, 2007.
  18. M. Hee. Kang, "Effects of horticultural intervention program on cognition, emotion, communication and problematic behavior in older adults with alzheimer", ChungNam University, Ph.D. thesis, 2005.
  19. S. J. Chang, T. S. Kihl, "The effect of music game therapy on patients cognitive function, depression and self-improvement of patient care', Korea Computer Game Association. Vol. 25, No. 2, pp. 117-127, 2012.
  20. Casby, J. A., Holm.. M. B., "The Effect of Music on Repetitive Disruptive Vocalizations of Persons With Dementia.", American J. of Occupational Therapy, Vol. 48, pp 883-889, 1994.
  21. Laurin, D., Verreault, R., Lindsay, J., MacPherson, K., & Rockwood, K. "Physical activity and risk of cognitive impairment and dementia in elderly persons", Archives of neurology, Vol. 58, No. 3, pp. 498-504, 2001.
  22. Bixby, W. R., Spalding, T. W., & Haufler, A. J. "The unique relation of physical activity to executive function in older men and women", Medicine Science Sport & Exercise, Vol. 39, pp. 1408-1416, 2007.
  23. Colcomb, S. J., & Kramer, A. F., "Fitness effects on the cognitive function of older adults: A metaanalytic study", Psychological Science, Vol. 14, pp. 125-130, 2003.
  24. Y. S. Kim, S. G. Kang, "The Relationship Between Physical Fitness and Cognitive Functions according to Body Activity", Korea Sports Association Vol. 39, No. 4, pp,, 227-237, 2000.
  25. Flannery Jr, R. B., "Treating learned helplessness in the elderly dementia patient: Preliminary inquiry", American J. of Alzheimer's Disease & Other Dementias, Vol. 17, No. 6, pp. 345-349, 2002.
  26. Hall, C. D., Smith, A. L., & Keele, S. W., "The impact of aerobic activity on cognitive function in older adults: A new synthesis based on the concept of executive control", European J. of Cognitive Psychology Vol. 13, No. 1, pp. 279-300, 2001.
  27. Toulotte, C., Fabre, C., Dangremont, B., Lensel, G., & Thevenon, A., "Effects of physical training on the physical capacity of frail, demented patients with a history of falling: a randomised controlled trial", Age and Ageing. Vol. 32, No. 1, pp. 67-73, 2003.
  28. Lautenschlager, N. T., Cox, K. L., & Flicker, L. "Effect of physical activity on cognitive function in older adults at risk for Alzheimer disease: a randomized trial", Jama, Vol. 300, No. 9, pp. 1027-1037, 2008.
  29. Lu, F, Fu, W., & Liu, Y. "Physical activity and cognitive function among older adults in China: A systematic review", J. of Sport and Health Science Vol. 5, pp. 287-296, 2016.
  30. Folstein, M. F., Folstein, S. E., & McHugh, P. R., "Mini-Mental State: A practical method for grading the cognitive state of patients for the clinician", J. of psychiatric research, Vol. 12, pp. 189-198. 1975.
  31. Y. C. Kwon, J. H. Park, "Korean version of Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE-K). Part I: development of the test for the elderly", J. Korean Neuropsychiatr Assoc, Vol. 28, 125-135, 1989.
  32. Y. W. Kang, "A study on the elderly norms of K-MMSE", Korean Psychological Association, Vol. 25, No. 2, pp. 1-12, 2006.
  33. Y. W. Kang, J. H. Chin, D. L. Na, "A study on the elderly norms of Memorize numbers test", Korean Psychological Association, Vol. 21, No. 3, pp. 911-922, 2002.
  34. Perret, E. "The left frontal lobe of man and the suppression of habitual responses in verbal categorical behaviour", Neuropsychologia, Vol. 12, No. 3, pp. 323-330, 1974.
  35. H. K. Kim, "Clinical Evaluation of the Frontal Lobe Syndrome Using Kims Frontal-Executive Neuropsychological Test", Korean Association of Rehabilitation Psychology, Vol. 8, No. 2, pp. 173-190, 2001.
  36. G. A. Kim, M. J. Lee, "Memory function and executive function of patients with traumatic brain injury -Comparison according to severity of brain damage-", Korean Psychology Association, Vol. 24, No. 4, pp. 849-867, 2005.
  37. Yesavage, J. A., & Sheikh, J. I. "9/Geriatric depression scale (GDS) recent evidence and development of a shorter version", Clinical gerontologist, Vol. 5, No. 1-2, pp. 165-173, 1986.
  38. B. S. Kee, "A Preliminary Study for the Standardization of Geriatric Depression Scale Short Form-Korea Version", Neuropsychology, Vol. 35, No. 2, 1996.
  39. H. S. Kim, Y. J. Lee, K. H. Park, W. G. Kang, B. M. Lee, "The Effect of Cognitive Health Promotion Program on Cognitive Function, Depression and Quality of Life in the Elderly", Korea Contents Association, Vol. 10, No. 8, pp. 227-239, 2010.
  40. Neugarten, B. L., Havighurst, R. J., & Tobin, S. S. "The measurement of life satisfaction", J. of gerontology. 1961.
  41. Y. J. Choi, "A Study on Factors that Affect Quality of Life of the Elderly by Age", HanYoung theology University, Ph.D. dissertation, 2009.
  42. H. G. Park, "The Effects of Clay-Focusing Group Art Therapy on Depressions of Abused Seniors" DaeGu University, Ph.D. thesis, 2014.
  43. G. A. Park, M. H. Oh, "Relationships between Cognitive Function and Self Efficacy, Health Behavior of the Elderly Participation to Physical Activity", Rehabilitation welfare, Vol. 20, No. 1, 2016.
  44. B. G. Kim, "Corelational study between physical activity and depression and cognitive function among elderly people", YonSei University, Ph.D. dissertation, 2003.
  45. B. Y. Chung, J. Y. Han, "The Effect of Exercise on the Cognitive Function of the Elderly: Systematic Review and Meta Analysis", Korea Data Information Science Society, Vol. 27, No. 5, pp. 1375-1387, 2016.
  46. Angevaren, M., Aufdemkampe, G., Verhaar, H. J., Aleman, A., & Vanhees, L. "Physical activity and enhanced fitness to improve cognitive function in older people without known cognitive impairment", Cochrane Database Syst Rev Vol. 3, No. 3, 2008.
  47. J. W. Kim, Y. Y. Lee, D. H. Kang, J. K. Kim, S. Y. Park, "The Effects of Structured Exercise Program on the Quality of Life and Depression of the Elderly in Nursing Facilities", Aging Society of Dementia Occupational Therapy, Vol. 7, No. 1, pp. 34-45, 2013.
  48. M. J. Shin, Y. S. Shim, "The Influence of Old People's Exercise Participation on Depression : The Function of Mediational Variables", Korean J. of Wellness, Vol. 11, No. 4, pp. 327-339, 2016.
  49. B. H. Lee, J. S. Park, N. R, Kim, "The Effects of Physical Activity Program on Cognitive, Physical Performance, Walking, Quality of Life and Depression of the Elderly with Dementia", Special Education Rehabilitation Science Institute, Vol. 50, No. 2, pp. 307-328, 2011.
  50. Larson, E. B., Wang, L., Bowen, J. D., McCormick, W. C., Teri, L., Crane, P., & Kukull, W. "Exercise Is Associated with Reduced Risk for Incident Dementia among Persons 65 Years of Age and Older Exercise, Aging, and Risk for Incident Dementia", Annals of internal medicine, Vol. 144, No. 2, pp. 73-81, 2006.
  51. Hamer, M. & Chida, Y. "Physical activity and risk of neurodegenerative disease: a systematic review of prospective evidence", Psychol. Med., Vol. 3, pp. 3-11, 2009.
  52. Heyn, P., Abreu, B. C., & Ottenbacher, K. J. "The effects of exercise training on elderly persons with cognitive impairment and dementia: a meta-analysis", Archives of physical medicine and rehabilitation, Vol. 85, No. 10, pp. 1694-1704, 2004.