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Potential Utility of FDG PET-CT as a Non-invasive Tool for Monitoring Local Immune Responses

  • Lee, Seungho (Department of Surgery, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Yonsei University Health System) ;
  • Choi, Seohee (Department of Surgery, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Yonsei University Health System) ;
  • Kim, Sang Yong (Medical Research Center, Yonsei University College of Medicine) ;
  • Yun, Mi Jin (Department of Nuclear Medicine, Yonsei University College of Medicine) ;
  • Kim, Hyoung-Il (Department of Surgery, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Yonsei University Health System)
  • Received : 2017.12.19
  • Accepted : 2017.12.22
  • Published : 2017.12.31

Abstract

Purpose: The tumor microenvironment is known to be associated with the metabolic activity of cancer cells and local immune reactions. We hypothesized that glucose metabolism measured by 2-deoxy-2-($^{18}F$)fluoro-D-glucose ($^{18}F-FDG$) positron emission tomography (PET)-computed tomography (CT) ($^{18}F-FDG$ PET-CT) would be associated with local immune responses evaluated according to the presence of tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs). Materials and Methods: We retrospectively reviewed 56 patients who underwent $^{18}F-FDG$ PET-CT prior to gastrectomy. In resected tumor specimens, TIL subsets, including cluster of differentiation (CD) 3, CD4, CD8, Forkhead box P3 (Foxp3), and granzyme B, were subjected to immunohistochemical analysis. The prognostic nutritional index (PNI) was calculated as: ($10{\times}serum$ albumin value)+($0.005{\times}peripheral$ lymphocyte counts). Additionally, the maximum standard uptake value ($SUV_{max}$) was calculated to evaluate the metabolic activity of cancer cells. Results: The $SUV_{max}$ was positively correlated with larger tumor size (R=0.293; P=0.029) and negatively correlated with PNI (R=-0.407; P=0.002). A higher $SUV_{max}$ showed a marginal association with higher CD3 (+) T lymphocyte counts (R=0.227; P=0.092) and a significant association with higher Foxp3 (+) T lymphocyte counts (R=0.431; P=0.009). No other clinicopathological characteristics were associated with $SUV_{max}$ or TILs. Survival analysis, however, indicated that neither $SUV_{max}$ nor Foxp3 held prognostic significance. Conclusions: FDG uptake on PET-CT could be associated with TILs, especially regulatory T cells, in gastric cancer. This finding may suggest that PET-CT could be of use as a non-invasive tool for monitoring the tumor microenvironment in patients with gastric cancer.

Acknowledgement

Supported by : National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF)

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