Effects of Informal Learning and Positive Psychological Capital on Job Satisfaction and Customer orientation

무형식 학습과 긍정심리자본이 직무만족 및 고객지향성에 미치는 영향

  • 김준환 (성결대학교 파이데이아학부)
  • Received : 2017.10.12
  • Accepted : 2017.12.20
  • Published : 2017.12.28


Previous studies on salesperson's performance have concentrated on increasing job satisfaction through compensations and benefits or effective communication processes and have not sufficiently considered the emotional aspect of salesperson's selling behaviors. The purpose of this study is to investigate informal learning and positive psychological capital on the relationship between job satisfaction and customer orientation of IT salespeople. Data were collected from 159 IT salespeople and analyzed by structural equation modeling (SEM). As a result, it was found that the informal learning of IT salesperson had a significantly positive impact on positive psychological capital. Positive psychological capital was significantly affect on job satisfaction and customer orientation. Positive psychological capital mediated the relationship between informal learning and job satisfaction/customer orientation. The results of this study suggest that there is a need to develop informal learning based on positive psychology and to strengthen the reflected job satisfaction and customer orientation.


  1. G. Hernez-Broome, R. L. Hughes, "Leadership Development: Past, Present, and Fture", People and Strategy, Vol. 27, No. 1, pp. 24-32, 2004.
  2. J. B. Avey, F. Luthans, S. M. Jensen, "Psychological Capital: A Positive Resource for Combating Employee Stress and Turnover", Human resource management, Vol. 48, No. 5, pp. 677-693, 2009.
  3. V. J. Marsick, K. Watkins, "Informal and Incidental Learning in the Workplace (Routledge Revivals)", Routledge, 2015.
  4. F. Luthans, C. M. Youssef, "Emerging Positive Organizational Behavior", Journal of Management, Vol. 33, No. 3, pp. 321-349, 2007.
  5. C. R. Snyder, "Handbook of Hope: Theory, Measures, and Applications", Academic Press, 2000.
  6. F. Luthans, "Positive Organizational Behavior: Developing and Managing Psychological Strengths", The Academy of Management Executive, Vol. 16, No. 1, pp. 57-72, 2002.
  7. A. D. Ellinger, "Contextual Factors Influencing Informal Learning in a Workplace Setting: The Case of Reinventing itself Company", Human Resource Development Quarterly, Vol. 16, No. 3, pp. 389-415, 2005.
  8. M. Eraut, "Informal Learning in the Workplace", Studies in Continuing Education, Vol. 26, No. 2, pp. 247-273, 2004.
  9. M. E. Seligman, "What is the Good Life", APA Monitor, Vol. 29, No. 10, pp. 1-3, 1998.
  10. Jr O. C. Walker, Jr G. A. Churchill, N. M. Ford, "Motivation and Performance in Industrial Selling: Present Knowledge and Needed Research", Journal of Marketing Research, Vol. 14, No. 2, pp. 156-168, 1977.
  11. S. P. Brown, R. A. Peterson, "The Effect of Effort on Sales Performance and Job Satisfaction", Journal of Marketing, Vol. 2, No. 9, pp. 70-80, 1994.
  12. J. B. Avey, F. Luthans, R. M. Smith, N. F. Palmer, "Impact of Positive Psychological Capital on Employee Well-being over Time", Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, Vol. 15, No. 1, pp. 17-28, 2010.
  13. J. B. Avey, F. Luthans, C. M. Youssef, "The Additive Value of Positive Psychological Capital in Predicting Work Attitudes and Behaviors", Journal of Management, Vol. 36, No. 2, pp. 430-452, 2010.
  14. S. Y. Bae, S. H. Kim, "Analysis of Convergent Influence of Self Efficacy, Job Characteristics and Occupational Stress on Job Satisfaction among Hospital Administrative Staff", Journal of Digital Convergence, Vol. 15, No. 7, pp. 239-246, 2017.
  15. S. K. Yang, E. Jeong, "Convergence Effects of Positive psychological capital and Self-leadership in Clinical Nurses on Job satisfaction", Journal of Digital Convergence, Vol. 15, No. 6, pp. 329-337, 2017.
  16. J. M. George, A. P. Brief, "Feeling Good-doing Good: a Conceptual Analysis of the Mood at Work-organizational Spontaneity Relationship", Psychological Bulletin, Vol. 112, No. 2, pp. 310-329, 1992.
  17. F. Luthans, S. M. Norman, B. J. Avolio, J. B. Avey, "The Mediating Role of Psychological Capital in the Supportive Organizational Climate-Employee Performance Relationship", Journal of Organizational Behavior, Vol. 29, No. 2, pp. 219-238, 2008.
  18. T. J. Brown, J. C. Mowen, D. T. Donavan, J. W. Licata, "The Customer Orientation of Service Workers: Personality Trait effects on Self-and Supervisor Performance Ratings", Journal of Marketing Research, Vol. 39, No. 1, pp. 110-119, 2002.
  19. R. M. Stock, W. D. Hoyer, "An Attitude-behavior Model of Salespeople's Customer Orientation", Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, Vol. 33, No. 4, pp. 536-552, 2005.
  20. S. Román, D. Iacobucci, "Antecedents and Consequences of Adaptive Selling Confidence and Behavior: a Dyadic Analysis of Salespeople and their Customers", Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, Vol. 38, No. 3, pp. 363-382, 2010.
  21. G. S. Day, "The Capabilities of Market-driven Organizations", Journal of Marketing, Vol. 58, No. 4, pp. 37-52, 1994.
  22. M. E. Gist, "Self-efficacy: Implications for Organizational Behavior and Human Resources Management", Academy of Management Review, Vol. 12, No. 3, pp. 472-485, 1987.
  23. B. J. Lee, S. H. Lee, "A Study on the Influence of Internal Marketing to Customer Orientation in Convergence Era-The Mediating Effect of S Electronic Employee's Trust to Leaders", Journal of Digital Convergence, Vol. 14, No. 9, pp. 99-109, 2016.
  24. W. Y. Park, K. M. Nam, "The Effects of Public Welfare Officials' Job Stress Factors on their Client-oriented Tendency: Focused on Responsibility and Self-efficacy as Mediators", Korean Journal of Social Welfare Studies, Vol. 38, No. 9, pp. 93-121, 2008.
  25. Y. K. Cho, "A Study of Airline Cabin Crew's Positive Psychological Capital Effect on Job Attitude and Customer Orientation", Master dissertation, Kyunggi University, 2011.
  26. S. H. Lee, "A Study on the Relationship between Professional Self-concept, Self-efficacy and Job Satisfaction in Clinical Nurses", Journal of Korean Academy of Adult Nursing, Vol. 20, No. 1, pp. 10-20, 2008.
  27. R. W. Rowden, "The Relationship between Workplace Learning and Job Satisfaction in US Small to Midsize Businesses", Human Resource Development Quarterly, Vol. 13, No. 4, pp. 407-425, 2002.
  28. R. W. Rowden, S. Ahmad, "The Relationship between Workplace Learning and Job Satisfaction in Small to Midsize Businesses in Malaysia", Human Resource Development International, Vol. 3, No. 3, pp. 307-322, 2000.
  29. Se-Yeon Moon, "The Causal Relationship among Informal Learning, Learning Motivation, Learning Strategy, Interpersonal Relationship, and Job Characteristics of Workers in Small and Medium-sized Enterprises", Ph.D. dissertation, Seoul National University, 2010.
  30. F. Luthans, C. M. Youssef, B. J. Avolio, "Psychological Capital: Developing the Human Competitive edge (p. 3)", Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2007.
  31. M. D. Hartline, O. C. Ferrell, "The Management of Customer-contact Service Employees: an Empirical Investigation", Journal of Marketing, Vol. 60, No. 4, pp. 52-70, 1996.
  32. R. Saxe, B. A. Weitz, "The SOCO scale: A Measure of the Customer Orientation of Salespeople", Journal of Marketing Research, Vol. 19, No. 3, pp. 343-351, 1982.
  33. J. Nunnally, "Psychometric Methods", 2nd ed. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1978.
  34. L. T. Hu, P. M. Bentler, "Cutoff Criteria for Fit Indexes in Covariance Structure Analysis: Conventional Criteria versus New Alternatives", Structural Equation Modeling: A Multidisciplinary Journal, Vol. 6, No. 1, pp. 1-55, 1999.
  35. J. F. Hair, W. C. Black, B. J. Babin, R. E. Anderson, R. L. Tatham, "Multivariate Data Analysis", Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice hall, Vol. 5, No. 3, pp. 207-219, 1998.