DOI QR코드

DOI QR Code

Potency of Botryococcus braunii cultivated on palm oil mill effluent wastewater as a source of biofuel

  • Azimatun Nur, Muhamad Maulana (Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Industrial Technology, Universitas Pembangunan Nasional "Veteran" Yogyakarta) ;
  • Setyoningrum, Tutik Muji (Department of Ocean Ecosystems, Energy and Sustainability Research Institute Groningen, University of Groningen) ;
  • Budiaman, I Gusti Suinarcana (Department of Ocean Ecosystems, Energy and Sustainability Research Institute Groningen, University of Groningen)
  • Received : 2017.05.01
  • Accepted : 2017.06.18
  • Published : 2017.12.31

Abstract

Indonesia is known as the largest oil palm producer in the world. However, along with the production, it generates wastes and pollution that caused the environmental problem in surrounding areas. Previous researchers reported that the high palm oil mill effluent (POME) concentration inhibited microalgae growth. However, the inhibition factor was not clearly explained by using kinetic model. This study presents kinetic models of Botryococcus braunii (B. braunii) cultivated on POME wastewater under different turbidity condition. Results showed that the growth model of Zwietering was closely suitable with experimental results. It was found that B. braunii was able to consume organic carbon from the POME wastewater on the logarithmic model. A modified kinetic model of Monod Haldane described the influence of turbidity and chemical oxygen demand on the cultivation. Turbidity of POME medium inhibited the growth rate at KI 3.578 and KII 179.472 NTU, respectively. The Lipid (39.9%), and carbohydrate (41.03%) were found in the biomass that could be utilized as biofuel source.

Keywords

Biofuel;Botryococcus braunii;Kinetic model;Palm oil mill effluent;Turbidity

References

  1. Silva NFP, Goncalves AL, Moreira FC, et al. Towards sustainable microalgal biomass production by phycoremediation of a synthetic wastewater: A kinetic study. Algal Res. 2015;11:350-358. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.algal.2015.07.014
  2. Gani P, Sunar NM, Hazel M-P, Jamaian SS, Latiff AAA. Effects of different culture conditions on the phycoremediation efficiency of domestic wastewater. J. Environ. Chem. Eng. 2016;4:4744-4753. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jece.2016.11.008
  3. Yamaguchi K, Nakano H, Murakami M, et al. Lipid composition of a green alga, Botryococcus braunii. Agr. Biol. Chem. 1987;51:493-498.
  4. Alvarez-Diaz PD, Ruiz J, Arbib Z, Barragan J, Garrido-Perez C, Perales JA. Factorial analysis of biokinetic growth parameters and $CO_2$ fixation rate Chlorella vulgaris and Botryococcus braunii in wastewater and synthetic medium. Desalin. Water Treat. 2014;52:4904-4914. https://doi.org/10.1080/19443994.2013.808590
  5. Myers JA, Curtis BS, Curtis WR. Improving accuracy of cell and chromophore concentration measurements using optical density. BMC Biophys. 2013;6:1-15. https://doi.org/10.1186/2046-1682-6-1
  6. SNI. Air dan air limbah - Bagian 22: Cara uji nilai permanganat secara titrimetri. 06-6989.22-2004. [cited 19 October 2016]. Available from: http://sisni.bsn.go.id/index.php?/sni_main/sni/detail_sni/7001.
  7. Bailley JF, Ollis DF. Biochemical engineering funadamentals. 2nd ed. Chennai: Tata McGraw Hill Publishers; 1986. p. 408-440.
  8. Surendhiran D, Vijay M, Sivaprakash B, Surajunnisa A. Kinetic modeling of microalgal growth and lipid synthetic for biodiesel production. 3 Biotech. 2015;5:663-669.
  9. FAOSTAT. Crops processed database [Internet]. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations; c2016 [cited 19 October 2016]. Available from http://www.fao.org/faostat/en/#data/QD/visualize.
  10. BPS. Indonesian oil palm statistics. Jakarta: BPS Statistics Indonesia; 2015.
  11. Otieno NE, Dai XP, De Barba D, et al. Palm oil production in malaysia: An analytical systems model for balancing economic prosperity, forest conservation and social welfare. Agr. Sci. 2016;7:55-69.
  12. Saidu M, Yuzir A, Salim MR, Salmiati, Azman S, Abdullah N. Influence of palm oil mill effluent as inoculum on anaerobic digestion of cattle manure for biogas production. Bioresour. Technol. 2013;141:174-176. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2013.03.111
  13. Shak KPY, Wu TY. Optimized use of alum together with unmodified Cassia obtusifolia seed gum as a coagulant aid in treatment of palm oil mill effluent under natural pH of wastewater. Ind. Crops Prod. 2015;76:1169-1178. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.indcrop.2015.07.072
  14. Abdel-Raouf N, Al-Homaidan AA, Ibraheem IBM. Microalgae and wastewater treatment. Saudi J. Biol. Sci. 2012;19:257-275. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sjbs.2012.04.005
  15. Delrue F, Alvarez-Diaz PD, Fon-Sing S, Fleury G, Sassi J-F. The environmental biorefinery: Using microalgae to remediate wastewater, a win-win paradigm. Energies 2016;132:1-19.
  16. Resdi R, Jeng Shiun L, Hesam K, et al. Review of microalgae growth in palm oil mill effluent for lipid production. Clean Technol. Environ. Policy 2016;18:2347-2361. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10098-016-1204-1
  17. Wai YC, Tau Chuan L, Pau LS, Joon CJ, Jo-Shu C, Duu-Jong L. Cultivation in wastewaters for energy: A microalgae platform. Appl. Energ. 2016;179:609-625. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apenergy.2016.07.015
  18. Wu TY, Mohammad AW, Lim SL, Lim PN, Hay JXW. Recent advances in the reuse of wastewaters for promoting sustainable development. In: Sharma SK, Sanghi R, eds. Wastewater reuse and management. Netherlands: Springer; 2013. p. 47-103.
  19. Azimatun Nur MM, Hadiyanto H. Enhancement of Chlorella vulgaris biomass cultivated in POME medium as biofuel feedstock under mixotrophic conditions. J. Eng. Technol. Sci. 2015;47:487-497. https://doi.org/10.5614/j.eng.technol.sci.2015.47.5.2
  20. Banerjee A, Sharma R, Chisti Y, Banerjee A. Botryococcus braunii: A renewable source of hydrocarbons and other chemicals. Crit. Rev. Biotechnol. 2002;22:245-279. https://doi.org/10.1080/07388550290789513
  21. Kamyab H, Din MFM, Keyvanfar A, et al. Efficiency of microalgae chlamydomonas on the removal of pollutants from palm oil mill effluent (POME). Energy Procedia 2015;75:2400-2408. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.egypro.2015.07.190
  22. Zwietering MH, Jongenburger I, Rombouts FM, Riet K VAN'T. Modelling of the bacterial curve. J. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 1990;56:1875-1881.
  23. Kayombo S, Mbwette TSA, Katima JHY, Jorgensen SE. Effects of substrate concentrations on the growth of heterotrophic bacteria and algae in secondary facultative ponds. Water Res. 2003;37:2937-2943. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0043-1354(03)00014-9
  24. Bougaran G, Rouxel C, Dubois N, et al. Enhancement of neutral lipid productivity in the microalgae Isochrysis affinis galbana (T-Iso) by a mutation-selection procedure. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2012;109:2737-2745. https://doi.org/10.1002/bit.24560
  25. Gompertz B. On the nature of the function expressive of the law of human mortality, and on a new mode of determining the value of life contingencies. Philos. T. Roy. Soc. London 1825;115:513-585. https://doi.org/10.1098/rstl.1825.0026
  26. Monod J. The growth of bacterial cultures. Annu. Rev. Microbiol. 1949;3:371-393. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.mi.03.100149.002103
  27. Zhang XW, Zhang YM, Chen F. Kinetic models for phycocyanin production by high cell density mixotrophic culture of the microalga Spirulina platensis. J. Ind. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 1998;21:283-288. https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.jim.2900581
  28. Chojnacka K, Noworyta A. Evaluation of Spirulina sp. growth in photoautotrophic, heterotrophic and mixotrophic cultures. Enzyme Microb. Technol. 2004;34:461-465. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enzmictec.2003.12.002
  29. Mirzaie MAA, Kalbasi M, Ghobadian B, Mousavi SM. Kinetic modeling of mixotrophic growth of Chlorella vulgaris as a new feedstock for biolubricant. J. Appl. Phycol. 2016;28:2707-2717. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10811-016-0841-4
  30. Thornton A, Weinhart T, Bokhove O, et al. Modeling and optimization of algae growth [Internet]. CASA Report 10-59. [cited 08 Sepember 2016]. Available from: www.doc.utwente.nl/ 75743/1/SecondSubmittedVersion.pdf.
  31. Holliday CP, Rasmussen TC, Miller WP. Establishing the relationship between turbidity and total suspended sediment concentration. In: Proceedings of the 2003 Georgia Water Resources Conference, April 23-24 2003; University of Georgia: Athens, GA, USA.
  32. Simkins S, Alexander M. Models for mineralization kinetics with the variables of substrate concentration and polulation density. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 1984;47:1299-1306.
  33. Teo CL, Idris A. Enhancing the various solvent extraction method via microwave irradiation for extraction of lipids from marine microalgae in biodiesel production. Bioresour. Technol. 2014;171:477-481. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2014.08.024
  34. Dubois M, Gilles KA, Hamilton JK, Rebers PA, Smith F. Colorimetric method for determination of sugar and related substances. Anal. Chem. 1956;28:350-356. https://doi.org/10.1021/ac60111a017
  35. Martinez-Guerra E, Veera Gnaneswar G, Andro M, William H, Rafael H. Extractive-transesterification of algal lipids under microwave irradiation with hexane as solvent. Bioresour. Technol. 2014;156:240-247. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2014.01.026
  36. Sahu A, Imran P, Deepti J, et al. Fatty acids as biomarkers of microalgae. Phytochemistry 2013;89:53-58. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phytochem.2013.02.001
  37. Nakagawa S, Schielzeth H. A general and simple method for obtaining $R^2$ from generalized linear mixed-effects models. Methods Ecol. Evol. 2013;4:133-142. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.2041-210x.2012.00261.x
  38. Willmott CJ. On the validation of models. Phys. Geograph. 1981;2:184-194.
  39. Hadiyanto H, Azimatun Nur MM. Lipid extraction of microalgae Chlorella sp. cultivated in palm oil mill effluent (POME) medium. World Appl. Sci. J. 2014;31:959-967.
  40. Budiman PM, Wu TY, Ramanan RN, Hay JXW. Treatment and reuse of effluents from palm oil, pulp, and paper mills as a combined substrate by using purple nonsulfur bacteria. Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 2014;53:14921-14931. https://doi.org/10.1021/ie501798f
  41. Avinesh RB, Adarsha G, Colin JB, Munish P. Evaluation and comparison of algal cell disruption methods: Microwave, waterbath, blender, ultrasonic and laser treatment. Mar. Drugs 2015;13:5111-5127. https://doi.org/10.3390/md13085111
  42. Azimatun Nur MM, Dedy K, Setyoningrum TM, Budiaman IGS. Utilization of microalgae cultivated in palm oil mill wastewater to produce lipid and carbohydrate by employing microwave- assisted irradiation. Recent Innovation Chem. Eng. 2016;9:107-116.
  43. Yeesang C, Cheirsilp B. Low-cost production of green microalga Botryococcus braunii biomass with high lipid content through mixotrophic and photoautotrophic cultivation. Appl. Biochem. Biotechnol. 2014;174:116-129. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12010-014-1041-9
  44. Ruangsombong S. Effects of different media and nitrogen sources and levels on growth and lipid of green microalga Botryococcus braunii KMITL and its biodiesel properties based on fatty acid composition. Bioresour. Technol. 2015;191:377-384. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2015.01.091
  45. Ashokumar V, Rengasamy R. Mass culture of Botryococcus braunii Kutz. under open raceway pond for biofuel production. Bioresour. Technol. 2012;104:394-399. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2011.10.093
  46. Kitazato H, Asaoka S, Iwamoto H. Catalytic cracking of hydrocarbons from microalgae. J. JPN. Petrol. Inst. 1989;32:28-34. https://doi.org/10.1627/jpi1958.32.28

Cited by

  1. Opportunities and Challenges of Microalgal Cultivation on Wastewater, with Special Focus on Palm Oil Mill Effluent and the Production of High Value Compounds pp.1877-265X, 2018, https://doi.org/10.1007/s12649-018-0256-3
  2. Environmental and nutrient conditions influence fucoxanthin productivity of the marine diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum grown on palm oil mill effluent pp.1573-5176, 2018, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10811-018-1563-6