Comparative adsorption of crude oil using mango (Mangnifera indica) shell and mango shell activated carbon

  • Olufemi, Babatope Abimbola (Department of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering, University of Lagos) ;
  • Otolorin, Funmilayo (Department of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering, University of Lagos)
  • Received : 2017.01.23
  • Accepted : 2017.05.19
  • Published : 2017.12.31


Mango shell (MS) and mango shell activated carbon (MSAC) was used to adsorb crude oil from water at various experimental conditions. The MSAC was prepared by carbonization at $450^{\circ}C$ and chemical activation using strong $H_3PO_4$ acid. The adsorbents were characterized with Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy. Investigations carried out included the effects of parametric variations of different adsorbate dose, adsorbent dose, time, temperature, pH and mixing speed on the adsorption of crude oil. The equilibrium isotherm for the adsorption process was determined using Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin and Dubinin Radushkevich isotherm models. Temkin isotherm was found to fit the equilibrium data reasonably well than others. The result demonstrated that MSAC was more effective for crude oil adsorption than raw mango shell. Optimum conditions were also presented. The enhanced effect from activation was justified statistically using Analysis of Variance and Bonferroni-Holm Posthoc significance test. The pseudo first order kinetics gave a better fit for crude oil adsorption with both MS and MSAC.


Activated carbon;Adsorption;Crude oil;Mango shell;Optimization


  1. Lin J, Shang Y, Ding B, Yang J, Yu J, Al-Deyab SS. Nanoporous polystyrene fibers for oil spill cleanup. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 2011;20:1-6.
  2. Annunciado TR, Sydenstricker THD, Amico SC. Experimental investigation of various vegetable fibers as sorbent materials for oil spills. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 2005;50:1340-1346.
  3. Angelova D, Uzunov I, Uzunova S, Gigova A, Minchev L. Kinetics of oil and oil products adsorption by carbonized rice husks. Chem. Eng. J. 2011;172:306-311.
  4. Ayotamuno MJ, Kogbara RB, Ogaji SOT, Probert SD. Bioremediation of a crude-oil polluted agricultural-soil at Port Harcourt, Nigeria. Appl. Energ. 2006;83:1249-1257.
  5. Broder JM, Zeller TJ. Gulf oil spills are bad, but how bad? [Internet]. N.Y. Times; [cited 8 September 2016]. Available from:
  6. Bhatnagar A, Sillanpaa M. Utilization of agro-industrial and municipal waste materials as potential adsorbents for water treatment - A review. Chem. Eng. J. 2010;157:2270-2296.
  7. Mohammed AR, Lee KT, Noor NM, Zainuddin NF. Oil palm ash/$Ca(OH)_2$/$CaSO_4$ adsorbent for flue gas desulfurization. Chem. Eng. Technol. 2005;28:939-945.
  8. Saleh TA, Gupta VK. Photo-catalyzed degradation of hazardous dye methyl orange by use of a composite catalyst consisting of multi-walled carbon nanotubes and titanium dioxide. J. Colloid Interf. Sci. 2012;371:101-106.
  9. Saleh TA, Gupta VK. Column with CNT/magnesium oxide composite for lead (II) removal from water. Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res. 2012;19:1224-1228.
  10. Saleh TA. Isotherm, kinetic, and thermodynamic studies on Hg (II) adsorption from aqueous solution by silica-multiwall carbon nanotubes. Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res. 2015;22:16721-16731.
  11. Saleh TA. Nanocomposite of carbon nanotubes/silica nanoparticles and their use for adsorption of Pb (II): From surface properties to sorption mechanism. Desalin. Water Treat. 2016;57:10730-10744.
  12. Saleh TA, Gupta VK. Processing methods, characteristics and adsorption behavior of tire derived carbons: A review. Adv. Colloid Interf. Sci. 2014;211:93-101.
  13. Gupta VK, Kumar R, Nayak A, Saleh TA, Barakat MA. Adsorptive removal of dyes from aqueous solution onto carbon nanotubes: A review. Adv. Colloid Interf. Sci. 2013;193:24-34.
  14. Saleh TA. Mercury sorption by silica/carbon nanotubes and silica/activated carbon: A comparison study. J. Water Supply Res. T. 2015;64:892-903.
  15. Gupta VK, Ali I, Saleh TA, Nayak A, Agarwal S. Chemical treatment technologies for waste-water recycling - An overview. RSC Adv. 2012;2:6380-6388.
  16. Saleh TA, Gupta VK. Synthesis and characterization of alumina nano-particles polyamide membrane with enhanced flux rejection performance. Sep. Purif. Technol. 2012;89:245-251.
  17. Saleh TA, Tuzen M, Sari A. Polyethylenimine modified activated carbon as novel magnetic adsorbent for the removal of uranium from aqueous solution. Chem. Eng. Res. Des. 2017;117:218-227.
  18. Saleh TA, Sari A, Tuzen M. Optimization of parameters with experimental design for the adsorption of mercury using polyethylenimine modified-activated carbon. J. Environ. Chem. Eng. 2017;5:1079-1088.
  19. Saleh TA, Sari A, Tuzen M. Effective adsorption of antimony (III) from aqueous solutions by polyamide-graphene composite as a novel adsorbent. Chem. Eng. J. 2017;307:230-238.
  20. Haruna K, Saleh TA, Hossain MK, Al-Saadi AA. Hydroxylamine reduced silver colloid for naphthalene and phenanthrene detection using surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy. Chem. Eng. J. 2016;304:141-148.
  21. Saleh TA, Sari A, Tuzen M. Chitosan-modified vermiculite for As (III) adsorption from aqueous solution: Equilibrium, thermodynamic and kinetic studies. J. Mol. Liq. 2016;219:937-945.
  22. Gupta VK, Kumar R, Nayak A, Saleh TA, Barakat MA. Adsorptive removal of dyes from aqueous solution onto carbon nanotubes: A review. Adv. Colloid Interf. Sci. 2013;193:24-34.
  23. Saleh TA. Mercury sorption by silica/carbon nanotubes and silica/activated carbon: a comparison study. J. Water Supply Res. T. 2015;64:892-903.
  24. Mise SR, Jagannath SG. Adsorption studies of colour removal by activated carbon derived from Mangifera indica (mango) seed shell. Int. J. Res. Eng. Technol. 2013;2(S1):325-328.
  25. Kwaghger A, Adejoh E. Optimization of conditions for the preparation of activated carbon from mango nuts using $ZnCl_2$. Int. J. Eng. Res. Dev. 2012;1:1-7.
  26. Uzoije AP, Onunkwo A, Egwuonwu N. Crude oil sorption onto groundnut shell activated carbon: Kinetic and isotherm studies. Res. J. Environ. Earth Sci. 2011;3:555-563.
  27. Coates J. Interpretation of infrared spectra, a practical approach. In: Meyers RA, ed. Encyclopedia of analytical chemistry. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons Ltd.; 2000. p. 10815-10837.
  28. Itodo AU, Itodo AH. Surface coverage and adsorption study of dye up take derived acid and base treated mango seed shell. J. Chem. Pharmaceut. Res. 2010;2:673-683.
  29. Bello OS, Ahmad MA. Adsorptive removal of a synthetic textile dye using cocoa pod husks. Toxicol. Environ. Chem. J. 2011;93:1298-1308.
  30. Lin CC, Liu HS. Adsorption in a centrifugal field: Basic dye adsorption by activated carbon. Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 2000;39:161-167.
  31. Olufemi BA, Jimoda LA, Agbodike NF. Adsorption of crude oil using meshed concorbs. Asian J. Applied Sci. Eng. 2014;3:7-21.
  32. Agarry SE, Ogunleye OO, Aworanti AO. Biosorption equilibrium, kinetic and thermodynamic modeling of naphthalene removal from aqeous solution onto modified spent tea leaves. Environ. Technol. 2013;34:825-839.
  33. Kumar GV, Ramalingam P, Kim MJ, Yoo CK, Kumar MD. Removal of acid dye (violet 54) and adsorption kinetics model of using musa spp. waste: A low-cost natural sorbent material. Korean J. Chem. Eng. 2010;27:1469-1475.
  34. Sidik SM, Jalil AA, Triwahyono S, Adam SH, Satar MAH, Hameed BH. Modified oil palm leaves adsorbent with enhanced hydrophobicity for crude oil removal. Chem. Eng. J. 2012;203:9-18.

Cited by

  1. Analysis of environmental impact of activated carbon production from wood waste vol.24, pp.1, 2018,
  2. Removal of toxic hydroquinone: Comparative studies on use of iron impregnated granular activated carbon as an adsorbent and catalyst vol.24, pp.3, 2018,