DOI QR코드

DOI QR Code

Effects of Supplements with Different Protein Contents on Nutritional Performance of Grazing Cattle During the Rainy Season

  • Figueiras, J.F. ;
  • Detmann, E. ;
  • Franco, M.O. ;
  • Batista, E.D. ;
  • Reis, W.L.S. ;
  • Paulino, M.F. ;
  • Valadares Filho, S.C.
  • Received : 2016.02.16
  • Accepted : 2016.03.18
  • Published : 2016.12.01

Abstract

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of supplements with different crude protein (CP) contents on grazing cattle intake, digestibility, ruminal fermentation pattern, and nitrogen (N) metabolism characteristics during the rainy season. Five ruminal and abomasal cannulated Holstein${\times}$Zebu steers (296 kg body weight, BW) were used in a $5{\times}5$ Latin square design. The animals grazed five signal grass paddocks (0.34 ha). The five treatments evaluated were: Control (no supplement) and 1.0 g of supplement/kg BW with 0, 330, 660, and 1,000 g of CP/kg as-fed. The supplement was composed of starch, soybean meal, urea, and ammonium sulphate. There was a positive linear effect ($p{\leq}0.033$) of the CP content in the supplements on the organic matter (OM), CP, and digested OM intakes. The provision of supplements did not increase ($p{\geq}0.158$), on average, total and ruminal digestibilities of OM and CP. However, the increase in CP content in the supplements caused a positive linear effect ($p{\leq}0.018$) on ruminal digestibilities of OM and CP. Additionally, a quadratic effect of the CP contents of the supplements were observed (p = 0.041) for the ruminal digestibility of neutral detergent fiber corrected for ash and protein, with the highest estimate obtained with the CP content of 670 g/kg. The supply of supplements increased (p<0.001) the ruminal ammonia N concentration, which also changed linearly and positively (p<0.001) according to increase in CP content in the supplements. The apparent N balance and relative N balance (g/g N intake) were not, on average, changed ($p{\geq}0.164$) by the supplements supply. However, both showed a tendency of a linear increase ($p{\leq}0.099$) with increasing supplement CP content. The supplements increased (p = 0.007) microbial N production in the rumen, which also changed linearly and positively (p = 0.016) with increasing supplement CP content. In conclusion, protein supplementation in grazing cattle during the rainy season, while stimulating voluntary forage intake, results in higher efficiency of N utilization when compared to energy supplementation. This is a possible response to increased microbial protein synthesis in the rumen and improved N status in the animal body.

Keywords

Digestibility;Energy;Metabolism;Nitrogen;Supplementation;Tropical Forages

References

  1. Batista, E. D., E. Detmann, E. C. Titgemeyer, S. C. Valadares Filho, R. F. D. Valadares, L. L. Prates, L. N. Rennó, and M. F. Paulino. 2016. Effects of varying ruminally undegradable protein supplementation on forage digestion, nitrogen metabolism, and urea kinetics in Nellore cattle fed low-quality tropical forage. J. Anim. Sci. 94:201-216.
  2. Carvalho, I. P. C., E. Detmann, H. C. Mantovani, M. F. Paulino, S. C. Valadares Filho, V. A. C. Costa, and D. I. Gomes. 2011. Growth and antimicrobial activity of lactic acid bacteria from rumen fluid according to energy or nitrogen source. R. Bras. Zootec. 40:1260-1265. https://doi.org/10.1590/S1516-35982011000600014
  3. Cecava, M. J., N. R. Merchen, L. C. Gay, and L. L. Berger. 1990. Composition of ruminal bacteria harvest from steers as influenced by dietary energy level, feeding frequency, and isolation techniques. J. Dairy Sci. 73:2480-2488. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(90)78933-3
  4. Chizzotti, M. L, S. C.Valadares Filho, R. F. D. Valadares, F. H. M. Chizzotti, J. M. S. Campos, M. I. Marcondes, and M. A. Fonseca. 2006. Intake, digestibility and urinary excretion of urea and purine derivatives in heifers with different body weights. R. Bras. Zootec. 35:1813-1821. https://doi.org/10.1590/S1516-35982006000600032
  5. Costa, V. A. C., E. Detmann, S. C. Valadares Filho, M. F. Paulino, L. T. Henriques, and H. C. Mantovani. 2008. In vitro degradation of low-quality tropical forage neutral detergent fiber according to protein and (or) carbohydrates supplementation. Rev. Bras. Zootec. 37:494-503. https://doi.org/10.1590/S1516-35982008000300015
  6. Costa, V. A. C., E. Detmann, M. F. Paulino, S. C. Valadares Filho, L. T. Henriques, I. P. C. Carvalho, and T. N. P. Valente. 2011a. Intake and rumen dynamics of neutral detergent fiber in grazing cattle supplemented with non-protein nitrogen and, or true protein during the rainy season. R. Bras. Zootec. 40:2805-2814. https://doi.org/10.1590/S1516-35982011001200027
  7. Costa, V. A. C., E. Detmann, M. F. Paulino, S. C. Valadares Filho, I. P. C. Carvalho, and L. P. Monteiro. 2011b. Intake and digestibility in cattle under grazing during rainy season and supplemented with different sources of nitrogenous compounds and carbohydrates. R. Bras. Zootec. 40:1788-1798. https://doi.org/10.1590/S1516-35982011000800024
  8. Costa, V. A. C., E. Detmann, M. F. Paulino, S. C. V. Valadares Filho, L. T. Henriques, and I. P. C. Carvalho. 2011c. Total and partial digestibility and nitrogen balance in grazing cattle supplemented with non-protein and, or true protein nitrogen during the rainy season. R. Bras. Zootec. 40:2815-2826. https://doi.org/10.1590/S1516-35982011001200028
  9. Detmann, E., M. F. Paulino, J. T. Zervoudakis, S. C. Valadares Filho, R. P. Lana, and D. S. Queiroz. 2001. Supplementation of crossbred steers during the rainy season: ingestive and digestive parameters. R. Bras. Zootec. 30:1340-1349. https://doi.org/10.1590/S1516-35982001000500030
  10. Detmann, E., M. A. Souza, S. C. Valadares Filho, A. C. Queiroz, T. T. Berchielle, E. O. S. Saliba, L. S. Cabral, D. S. Pina, M. M. Ladeira, and J. A. G. Azevedo. 2012. Metodos para analise de alimentos (In Portuguese). 1st edn. Suprema, Visconde do Rio Branco, MG, Brazil.
  11. Detmann, E., E. E. L. Valente, E. D. Batista, and P. Huhtanen. 2014a. An evaluation of the performance and efficiency of nitrogen utilization in cattle fed tropical grass pastures with supplementation. Livest. Sci. 162:141-153. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.livsci.2014.01.029
  12. Detmann, E., M. F. Paulino, S. C. Valadares Filho, and P. Huhtanen. 2014b. Nutritional aspects applied to grazing cattle in the tropics: a review based on Brazilian results. Semin. Cienc. Agrar. 35:2829-2854. https://doi.org/10.5433/1679-0359.2014v35n4Suplp2829
  13. Egan, A. R. 1965. Nutritional status and intake regulation in sheep. III. The relationship between improvement of nitrogen status and increase in voluntary intake of low-protein roughages by sheep. Aust. J. Agric. Res. 16:463-472. https://doi.org/10.1071/AR9650463
  14. Egan, A. R. and R. J. Moir. 1965. Nutritional status and intake regulation in sheep. I. Effects of duodenally infused single doses of casein, urea, and propionate upon voluntary intake of a low-protein roughage by sheep. Aust. J. Agric. Res. 16:437-449. https://doi.org/10.1071/AR9650437
  15. El-Shazly, K., B. A. Dehority, and R. R. Johnson. 1961. Effect of starch on the digestion of cellulose in vitro and in vivo by rumen microorganisms. J. Anim. Sci. 20:268-273.
  16. Figueiredo, D. M., M. F. Paulino, E. Detmann, E. H. B. K. Moraes, S. C. Valadares Filho, and M. G. Souza. 2008. Protein sources of in multiple supplements for cattle on pasture during the rainy season. R. Bras. Zootec. 37:2222-2232. https://doi.org/10.1590/S1516-35982008001200021
  17. Forbes, J. M. 2003. The multifactorial nature of food intake control. J. Anim. Sci. 81:E139-E144.
  18. Illius, A. W. and N. S. Jessop. 1996. Metabolic constraints on voluntary intake in ruminants. J. Anim. Sci. 74:3052-3062. https://doi.org/10.2527/1996.74123052x
  19. Kempton, T. J., J. V. Nolan, and R. A. Leng. 1977. Principles for the use of non-protein nitrogen and by-pass proteins in diets of ruminants. World Anim. Rev. 22:2-10.
  20. Kennedy, P. M., R. T. J. Clarke, and L. P. Milligan. 1981. Influences of dietary sucrose and urea on transfer of endogenous urea to the rumen of sheep and numbers of epithelial bacteria. Br. J. Nutr. 46:533-541. https://doi.org/10.1079/BJN19810062
  21. Lazzarini, I., E. Detmann, S. C. Valadares Filho, M. F. Paulino, E. D. Batista. L. M. A. Rufino, W. L. S. Reis, and M. O. Franco. 2016. Nutritional performance of cattle grazing during rainy season with nitrogen and starch supplementation. Asian Australas. J. Anim. Sci. 29:1120-1128.
  22. Mould, F. L E. R. Orskov, S. O. Mann, and S. A. Gauld. 1983. Associative effects of mixed feeds. II. The effect of dietary additions of bicarbonate salts on the voluntary intake and digestibility of diets containing various proportions of hay and barley. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 10:31-47. https://doi.org/10.1016/0377-8401(83)90004-4
  23. NRC (National Research Council). 1985. Ruminant Nitrogen Usage. 1st edn. National Academy Press, Washington, DC, USA.
  24. NRC (National Research Council). 2001. Nutrient Requirement of Dairy Cattle. 7th edn. National Academy Press, Washington, DC, USA.
  25. Nocek, J. E. and J. B. Russell. 1988. Protein and energy as an integrated system. Relationship of ruminal protein and carbohydrate availability to microbial synthesis and milk production. J. Dairy Sci. 71:2070-2107. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(88)79782-9
  26. Paulino, M. F., E. Detmann, E. E. L. Valente, and L. V. Barros. 2008. Nutrition of grazing cattle. In: Proceedings of the 4th Symposium on Strategic Management of Pasture (Eds. O. G. Pereira, J. A. Obeid, D. M. Fonseca, and D. Nascimento Jr.). Vicosa, MG, Brazil. pp. 131-169.
  27. Poppi, D. P. and S. R. McLennan. 1995. Protein and energy utilization by ruminants at pasture. J. Anim. Sci. 73:278-290. https://doi.org/10.2527/1995.731278x
  28. Porto, M. O., M. F. Paulino, S. C. Valadares Filho, M. F. L. Sales, M. I. Leao, and V. R. M. Couto. 2009. Protein sources in multiple supplements for finishing crossbred steers on Brachiaria pasture, in the wet season: productive and economical performance. R. Bras. Zootec. 38:1553-1560. https://doi.org/10.1590/S1516-35982009000800020
  29. Schroeder, G. F. and E. C. Titgemeyer. 2008. Interaction between protein and energy supply on protein utilization in growing cattle: A review. Livest. Sci. 114:1-10. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.livsci.2007.12.008
  30. Ushida, K., B. Lassalas, and J. Jouany. 1985. Determination of assay parameters for RNA analysis in bacterial and duodenal samples by spectrophotometry. Influence of treatment and preservation. Reprod. Nutr. Dev. 25:1037-1046. https://doi.org/10.1051/rnd:19850804
  31. Van Soest, P. J. 1994. Nutritional Ecology of the Ruminant. 2nd edn. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, NY, USA.
  32. Zorzi, K., E. Detmann, A. C. Queiroz, M. F. Paulino, H. C. Mantovani, and G. F. Bayao. 2009. In vitro degradation of neutral detergent fiber of high-quality tropical forage according to supplementation with different nitrogenous compounds. R. Bras. Zootec. 38:964-971. https://doi.org/10.1590/S1516-35982009000500025