Effect of dietary energy levels and phase feeding by protein levels on growth performance, blood profiles and carcass characteristics in growing-finishing pigs

  • Hong, J.S. (School of Agricultural Biotechnology, Seoul National University) ;
  • Lee, G.I. (School of Agricultural Biotechnology, Seoul National University) ;
  • Jin, X.H. (School of Agricultural Biotechnology, Seoul National University) ;
  • Kim, Y.Y. (School of Agricultural Biotechnology, Seoul National University)
  • Received : 2016.05.09
  • Accepted : 2016.10.08
  • Published : 2016.10.31


Background: Providing of insufficient nutrients limits the potential growth of pig, while feeding of excessive nutrients increases the economic loss and causes environment pollution. For these reasons, phase feeding had been introduced in swine farm for improving animal production. This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary energy levels and phase feeding by protein levels on growth performance, blood profiles and carcass characteristics in growing-finishing pigs. Methods: A total of 128 growing pigs ([Yorkshire ${\times}$ Landrace] ${\times}$ Duroc), averaging $26.62{\pm}3.07kg$ body weight, were assigned in a $2{\times}4$ factorial arrangement with 4 pigs per pen. The first factor was two dietary energy level (3,265 kcal of ME/kg or 3,365 kcal of ME/kg), and the second factor was four different levels of dietary protein by phase feeding (1growing(G)-2finishing(F) phases, 2G-2F phases, 2G-3F phases and 2G-3F phases with low CP requirement). Results: In feeding trial, there was no significant difference in growth performance. The BUN concentration was decreased as dietary protein level decreased in 6 week and blood creatinine was increased in 13 week when pigs were fed diets with different dietary energy level. The digestibility of crude fat was improved as dietary energy levels increased and excretion of urinary nitrogen was reduced when low protein diet was provided. Chemical compositions of longissimus muscle were not affected by dietary treatments. In backfat thickness ($P_2$) at 13 week, pigs fed high energy diet had thicker backfat thickness (P = 0.06) and pigs fed low protein diet showed the trend of backfat thinness reduction (P = 0.09). In addition, water holding capacity was decreased (P = 0.01) and cooking loss was increased (P = 0.07) as dietary protein level reduced. When pigs were fed high energy diet with low subdivision of phase feeding, days to 120 kg market weight was reached earlier compared to other treatments. Conclusion: Feeding the low energy diet and subdivision of growing-finishing phase by dietary protein levels had no significant effect on growth performance and carcass characteristics. Also, phase feeding with low energy and low protein diet had no negative effects on growth performance, carcass characteristics but economical profits was improved.


Energy;Growing-finishing pig;Growth performance;Phase feeding;Protein


Supported by : Rural Development Administration


  1. AOAC. Official Methods of Analysis. 16th ed. Washington: Association of Official Analytical Chemist; 1995.
  2. Apple JK, Maxwell CV, Brown DC, Friesen KG, Musser RE, Johnson ZB, Armstrong TA. Effects of dietary lysine and energy density on performance and carcass characteristics of finishing pigs fed ractopamine. J Anim Sci. 2004;82:3277-87.
  3. Baxmann AC, Ahmed MS, Marques NC, Menon VB, Pereira AB, Kirsztajn GM, Heilberg IP. Influence of muscle mass and physical activity on serum and urinary creatinine and serum cystatin C. CJASN. 2008;3:348-54.
  4. Beilken SL, Bouton PE, Harris PV. Some effects on the mechanical properties of meat produced by cooking at temperatures between 50 and 60 C. J Food Sci. 1986;51:791-6.
  5. Carpenter DA, O'Mara FP, O'Doherty JV. The effect of dietary crude protein concentration on growht performance, carcass composition and nitrogen excretion in entire grower-finisher pigs. Irish J Agri Food Res. 2004;43:227-36.
  6. Chen HY, Miller PS, Lewis AJ, Wolverton CK, Stroup WW. Changes in plasma urea concentration can be used to determine protein requirement of two populations of pigs with different protein accretion rates. J Anim Sci. 1995;73:2631-9.
  7. Chen HY, Lewis AJ, Miller PS. The effects of dietary protein concentration on performance and visceral organ mass in finishing barrows and gilts. Univ. of Nebraska. Swine Rep. 1996;197:25-7.
  8. Choi JY, Shinde P, Jin Z, Kim JS, Chae BJ. Effects of dietary protein level and phase feeding regimen on growth performance, carcass characteristics and pork quality in growing-finishing pigs. J Anim Sci Tech. 2010;52:205-12.
  9. Cromwell GL, Hays VW, Trujillo-Figueroa V, Kemp JD. Effects of dietary protein and energy levels for growing-finishing swine on performance, muscle composition and eating quality of pork. J Anim Sci. 1978;47:505-13.
  10. De la Llata M, Dritz SS, Tokach MD, Goodband RD, Nelssen JL, Loughin TM. Effects of dietary fat on growth performance and carcass characteristics of growing-finishing pigs reared in a commercial environment. J Anim Sci. 2001;79:2643-50.
  11. Figueroa JL, Lewis AJ, Miller PS, Fischer RL, Gomez RS, Diedrichsen RM. Nitrogen metabolism and growth performance of gilts fed standard cornsoybean meal diets or low-crude protein, amino acid-supplemented diets. J Anim Sci. 2002;80:2911-9.
  12. Goerl KF, Eilert SJ, Mandigo RW, Chen HY, Miller PS. Pork characteristics as affected by two populations of swine and six crude protein levels. J Anim Sci. 1995;73:3621-6.
  13. Gomez S, Miller PS, Lewis AJ, Chen HY. Responses of barrows consuming a diet formulated on an ideal protein basis at different feeding levels. Univ. of Nebraska. Swine Rep. 1998;149:30-3.
  14. Han IK, Kim JH, Chu KS, Xuan ZH, Sohn KS, Kim MK. Effect of phase feeding on the growth performance and nutrient utilization in finishing pigs. Asian-Aust J Anim Sci. 1998;11:559-65.
  15. Han IK, Lee JH, Piao XS, Defa L. Feeding and management system to reduce environmental pollution in swine production - review. Asian-Aust J Anim Sci. 2001;14:432-44.
  16. Hamm R. Functional properties of the myofibrillar system and their measurements. In: Bechtel PJ, editor. Muscle as food. USA: Academic; 1986. p. 135-99.
  17. Haydon KD, Dove CR, Harrison ML. Effect of varying digestible lysine:calorie ratio on the performance of growing pigs. Nutr Rep Int. 1989;40:341-8.
  18. Jeong TS, Heo PS, Lee GY, Kim DH, Ju WS, Kim YY. The influence of phase feeding methods on growth performance, meat quality, and production cost in growing-finishing pigs. J Anim Sci Tech. 2010;52:29-36.
  19. Jongbloed AW, Lenis N. Alteration of nutrition as a means to reduce environmental pollution by pigs. Livestock Prod Sci. 1992;31:75-94.
  20. Just A. The net energy value of crude fat for growth in pigs. Livestock Prod Sci. 1982;9:501-9.
  21. Kerr BJ, McKeith FK, and Easter RA. Effect on performance and carcass characteristics of nursery to finisher pigs fed reduced crude protein, amino acid-supplemented diets. J. Anim. Sci. 1995;73:433-440.
  22. Kim KH, Kim YS, Lee YK, Baik MG. Postmortem muscle glycolysis and meat quality characteristics of intact male Korean native (Hanwoo) cattle. Meat Sci. 2000;55:47-52.
  23. Kim BG, Kil DY, Stein HH. In growing pigs, the true ileal and total tract digestibility of acid hydrolyzed ether extract in extracted corn oil is greater than in intact sources of corn oil or soybean oil. J Anim Sci. 2013;91:755-63.
  24. Ko TG, Lee JH, Kim BG, Min TS, Cho SB, Han IK, Kim YY. Effects of phase feeding and sugar beet pulp on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, blood urea nitrogen, nutrient excretion and carcass characteristics in finishing pigs. Asian-Aust J Anim Sci. 2004;17:1150-7.
  25. Korean FKFSS (Korean Feeding Standard for Swine). Pig. National Institute of Animal Science, Rural Development Administration, Suwon. 2007.
  26. Lee JH, Kim DJ, Kim JH, Jin J, Han IK. Effect of phase feeding on the growth performance, nutrient utilization and carcass characteristics in finishing pigs. Asian-Aus J Anim Sci. 2000;13:1137-46.
  27. Matthews JO, Higbie AD, Southern LL, Coombs DF, Bidner TD, Odgaard RL. Effect of chromium propionate and metabolizable energy on growth, carcass traits, and pork quality of growing-finishing pigs. J Anim Sci. 2003; 81:191-6.
  28. Myer RO, Johnson DD, Knauft DA, Gorbet DW, Brendemuhl JH, Walker WR. Effect of feeding high-oleic-acid peanuts to growing-finishing swine on resulting carcass fatty acid profile and on carcass and meat quality characteristics. J Anim Sci. 1992;70:3734-41.
  29. NRC (National Research Council). Nutrient requirement of swine. 10th ed. Washington: Natl. Acad. Press; 1998.
  30. NRC (National Research Council). Nutrient requirement of swine. 11th ed. Washington: Natl. Acad. Press; 2012.
  31. Paik IK, Blair R, Jacob J. Strategies to reduce environmental pollution from animal manure: Principles and nutritional management. A review. Asian-Aus J Anim Sci. 1996;9:615-35.
  32. Pettigrew JE, Moser RL. Fat in swine nutrition. In: Miller ER, Ullrey DE, Lewis AJ, editors. Swine Nutrition. Stoneham: Butterworth-Heinemann; 1991. p. 133-46.
  33. Schinckel AP, de Lange CFM. Characterization of growth parameters needed as inputs for pig growth models. J Anim Sci. 1996;74:2021-36.
  34. Schutte JE, Longhurst JC, Gaffney FA, Bastian BC, Blomqvist CG. Total plasma creatinine: an accurate measure of total striated muscle mass. J Applied Physiology. 1981;51:762-6.
  35. Smith JW, Tokach MD, O'Quinn PR, Nelssen JL, Goodband RD. Effects of dietary energy density and lysine:calorie ratio on growth performance and carcass characteristics of growing-finishing pigs. J Anim Sci. 1999;77:3007-15.
  36. Storlien LH, James DE, Burleigh KM, Chisholm DJ, Kraegen EW. Fat feeding causes widespread in vivo insulin resistance, decreased energy expenditure, and obesity in rats. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 1986;251:E576-583.
  37. Sutton AL, Kephardt KB, Patterson JA, Mumma R, Kelly DT, Bogus E, Jones DD, Heber A. Manipulating swine diets to reduce ammonia and odor emissions. Proceedings of the 1st International Conference on Air Pollution from Agricultural Operations, 1996;445-452.
  38. Tjong-A-Hung AR, Hanson LE, Rust JW, Meade RJ. Effects of protein level sequence, and sex, on rate and efficiency of gain of growing swine, and on carcass characteristics including compositions of lean tissue. J Anim Sci. 1972;35:760-6.
  39. Wagner GR, Clark AJ, Hays VW, Speer VC. Effect of protein-energy relationships on the performance and carcass quality of growing swine. J Anim Sci. 1963;22:202-8.
  40. Wahlstrom RC, Libal GW. Compensatory responses of swine following protein insufficiency in grower diets. J Anim Sci. 1983;56:118-24.
  41. Whittemore CT. The science and practice of pig production. London: Longman Ltd; 1993.