DOI QR코드

DOI QR Code

Evaluation of dry feeding and liquid feeding to lactating sows under high temperature environment

  • Hong, J.S. (School of Agricultural Biotechnology, Seoul National University) ;
  • Jin, S.S. (School of Agricultural Biotechnology, Seoul National University) ;
  • Jung, S.W. (School of Agricultural Biotechnology, Seoul National University) ;
  • Fang, L.H. (School of Agricultural Biotechnology, Seoul National University) ;
  • Kim, Y.Y. (School of Agricultural Biotechnology, Seoul National University)
  • Received : 2016.05.09
  • Accepted : 2016.10.08
  • Published : 2016.10.31

Abstract

Background: Liquid feeding system has been introduced to domestic swine farms, but negative cognition about liquid feeding system has been remained for feed waste decay related with poor management and microbial contamination. For these reasons, this study was conducted to evaluate the effects of feeding method in lactating sows. Methods: A total of 30 mixed-parity (average 4.13) lactating sows (Yorkshire ${\times}$ Landrace) with an initial BW of $218.8{\pm}19.5kg$ was used in a 3 week trial. Sows were allotted to 1 of 2 treatments in a completely randomized design by their body weight, backfat thickness, parity and alive litter weight. One of treatments was dry feeding and the other was liquid feeding (water to feed ratio, 1:1). Experimental diets contained 3265 kcal ME/kg, 12.6 % CP, 5.76 % EE, 1.09 % total lysine, 0.25 % total methionine, as fed basis. Results: Dry feeding treatment had high body weight loss rather than liquid feeding treatment (P = 0.04). Dry feeding treatment had tendency to increase litter weight at 21d of lactation (P = 0.06) and litter weight gain (P = 0.04) during lactation period (0-3 week). Sows fed dry feeding method made milk containing high content of casein and total solid rather than sows fed liquid feeding method (P = 0.04). In addition, dry feeding treatment had tendency to higher content of milk fat, protein and solid not fat on 21d of lactation (P = 0.07). Sows fed dry feeding type also showed higher milk energy content in milk of 21d lactation (P = 0.05). Furthermore, liquid feeding treatment showed high occurrence in feed waste during lactation period (P <0.01). Conclusion: Dry feeding method was more suitable feeding method to lactating sows under high temperature environment like lactating barn.

Keywords

Dry feeding;Lactating sow;Liquid feeding;Piglet;High temperature environment

Acknowledgement

Supported by : Rural Development Administration

References

  1. Smith P. Comparison of dry, wet and soaked meal for fattening bacon pigs. Experimental Husbandry. 1976;30:87-94.
  2. Zak LJ, Cosgrove JR, Aherne FX, Foxcroft GR. Pattern of feed intake and associated metabolic and endocrine changes differentially affect postweaning fertility in primiparous lactating sows. J Anim Sci. 1997;75:208-16. https://doi.org/10.2527/1997.751208x
  3. Sauber TE, Stahly TS, Ewan RC, Williams NH. Maximum lactational capacity of sows with high and low genetic capacity for lean tissue growth. J Anim Sci. 1994;72:364.
  4. Scholten RHJ, Schraum JW, van der Peet-Schwering CMC, den Hartog LA, Vesseur PC, van Leeuwen P, Verstegen MWA. The dose-response effect of fermented liquid wheat on growth performance and gastrointestinal health of weaned piglets. In: Lindberg JE, editor. 8th Proc. Symp. Dig. Physiol. in Pigs, Uppsala, Sweden. 2000;246-266.
  5. Dourmad JY, Noblet J, Etienne M. Effect of body protein and lysine supply on performance, nitrogen balance, and body composition changes of sows during lactation. J Anim Sci. 1998;76:542-50. https://doi.org/10.2527/1998.762542x
  6. Baidoo SK, Aherne FX, Kirkwood RN, Foxcroft GR. Effect of feed intake during lactation and after weaning on sow reproductive performance. Can J Anim Sci. 1992;72:911-7. https://doi.org/10.4141/cjas92-103
  7. Boyd R, Kensinger RS, Harrell RJ, Bauman DE. Nutrient uptake and endocrine regulation of milk synthesis by mammary tissue of lactating sows. J Anim Sci. 1995;73:36-56. https://doi.org/10.2527/1995.73suppl_236x
  8. Han YK, Thacker PA, Yang JS. Effects of the duration of liquid feeding on performance and nutrient digestibility in weaned pigs. Asian-Aust J Anim Sci. 2006;19:396-401. https://doi.org/10.5713/ajas.2006.396
  9. Kirkwood RN, Baidoo SK, Aherne FX, Sather AP. The influence of feeding level during lactation on the occurrence and endocrinology of the post weaning estrus in sows. Can J Anim Sci. 1987a;67:405-415. https://doi.org/10.4141/cjas87-039
  10. Kirkwood RN, Lythgoe ES, Aherne FX. Effect of lactation feed intake and gonadotrophin-releasing hormone on the reproductive performance of sows. Can J Anim Sci. 1987b;67: 715-719. https://doi.org/10.4141/cjas87-074
  11. Koketsu Y. Influence of feed intake and other factors on the lactational and postweaning reproductive performance of sows. PhD Dissertation. St. Paul: University of Minnesota; 1994.
  12. Lynch PB. Factors affecting voluntary feed intake in the sow during the lactation period. PhD Dissertation. Dublin: National University of Ireland; 2001.
  13. Mullan BP, Williams IH. The chemical composition of sows during their first lactation. Anim Prod. 1990;51:375-87. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0003356100005523
  14. Noblet J, Etienne M. Metabolic utilization of energy and maintenance requirements in lactating sows. J Anim Sci. 1987;64:774-81. https://doi.org/10.2527/jas1987.643774x
  15. Noblet J, Etienne M. Estimation of sow milk nutrient output. J Anim Sci. 1989;67:3352-9. https://doi.org/10.2527/jas1989.67123352x
  16. Noblet J, Dourmad JY, Etienne M. Energy utilization in pregnant and lactating sows: modeling of energy requirements. J Anim Sci. 1990;68:562-72. https://doi.org/10.2527/1990.682562x
  17. NRC. Predicting Feed Intake of Food Producing Animals. Washington: National Academy Press; 1987.
  18. O'Grady JF, Lynch PB. Voluntary feed intake by lactating sows: influence of system of feeding and nutrient density of the diet. Irish J Agri Res. 1978;17:1-5.
  19. Peng JJ, Somes SA, Rozeboom DW. Effect of system of feeding and watering on performance of lactating sows. J Anim Sci. 2007;85:853-60. https://doi.org/10.2527/jas.2006-474
  20. Pettigrew JE. Amino acid nutrition of gestating and lactating sows. BioKyowa Tech Rev. 1993;5:2-18.
  21. Perrin DR. The composition of sow's milk during the course of lactation. J Dairy Res. 1954;21:55-62. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0022029900007135
  22. Richert BT, Tokach MD, Goodband RA, Nelssen JL, Pettigrew JE, Walker RA, Johnston LJ. Valine requirement of the high-producing lactating sow. J Anim Sci. 1996;74:1307-13. https://doi.org/10.2527/1996.7461307x