Quality and sensory characteristics of commercial kimchi according to sodium contents

나트륨 함량에 따른 시판 배추김치의 품질과 관능적 특성

  • Received : 2016.05.18
  • Accepted : 2016.07.10
  • Published : 2016.10.31


This study was conducted to compare the quality and sensory characteristics of commercial kimchi containing different sodium contents. The salinity at day 1 post-manufacture in regular kimchi was 1.99%, while it was 1.56% in lowsodium kimchi, thus showing a 21.6% reduction in sodium content. The pH of low-sodium kimchi was much lower than that of regular kimchi and the pH was dramatically decreased in both samples after 5 days of storage. The total acidity of low-sodium kimchi was higher than that of the regular kimchi, and increased during the storage period. The number of lactic acid bacteria was maximum at day 5 but slightly decreased after 10 days of storage. The sensory evaluation panels preferred low-sodium kimchi and realized that the saltiness of low-sodium kimchi was less than that of the regular kind. Based on these results, the quality characteristics of low-sodium kimchi were competitive to those of regular kimchi.


sodium;kimchi;quality;sensory evaluation


  1. Bang BH, Seo JS, Jeong EJ. A method for maintaining good kimchi quality during fermentation. Korean J. Food Nutr. 21: 51- 55 (2008)
  2. Park DI, Choi AR, Woo HJ, Rhee SK, Chae HJ. Effects of Sclerophyllous plant leaves addition on fermentative and sensory characteristics of kimchi. J. Korean Soc. Food Sci. Nutr. 39: 580-586 (2010)
  3. Kang H, Moon JS, Lee MG, Han NS. Immunomodulatory effects of Leuconostoc citreum EFEL2061 isolated from kimchi, a traditional Korean food, on the Th2 type-dominant immune response in vitro and in vivo. J. Funct. Food. 20: 79-87 (2016)
  4. Song HJ, Lee HJ. Consumption of kimchi, a salt fermented vegetable, is not associated with hypertension prevalence. J. Ethn. Food 1: 8-12 (2014)
  5. Ji YS, Kim HN, Park HJ, Lee JE, Lee HJ, Shin HK, Kim BJ, Franz CMAP, Holzapfel WH. Functionality and safety of lactic bacterial strains from Korean kimchi. Food Control 31: 467-473 (2013)
  6. Kim EK, An SY, Lee MS, Kim TH, Lee HK, Hwang WS, Choe SJ, Kim TY, Han SJ, Kim HJ, Kim DJ, Lee KW. Fermented kimchi reduces body weight and improves metabolic parameters in overweight and obese patients. Nutr. Res. 31: 436-443 (2011)
  7. Dahlsten E, Lindstrm M, Korkeala H. Mechanisms of food processing and storage-related stress tolerance in Clostridium botulinum. Res. Microbiol. 166: 344-352 (2015)
  8. Mheen TI, Kwon TW. Effect of temperature and salt concentration on kimchi fermentation. Korean J. Food Sci. Technol. 16: 443-450 (1984)
  9. Yu KW, Hwang JH. Fermentative characteristics of low-sodium kimchi prepared with salt replacement. Korean J. Food Nutr. 24: 753-760 (2011)
  10. Sebastian RS, Enns CW, Steinfeldt LC, Goldman JD, Moshfegh AJ. Monitoring sodium intake of the US population: Impact and implications of a change in what we eat in America, national health and nutrition examination survey dietary data processing. J. Acad. Nutr. Diet. 113: 942-949 (2013)
  11. Kloss L, Meyer JD, Graeve L, Vetter W. Sodium intake and its reduction by food reformulation in the European union-A review. NFS J. 1: 9-19 (2015)
  12. Israr T, Rakha A, Sohail M, Rashid S, Shehzad A. Salt reduction in baked products: Strategies and constraints. Trends Food Sci. Technol. 51: 98-105 (2015)
  13. Bobowski N, Rendahl A, Vickers Z. Preference for salt in a food may be alterable without a low sodium diet. Food Qual. Prefer. 39: 40-45 (2015)
  14. Paik HY. Dietary reference intake for Koreans. Asia Pac. J. Clin. Nutr. 17: 416-419 (2008)
  15. Yon MY, Lee YN, Kim DH, Lee JY, Koh EM, Nam EJ, Shin, HH, Kang BW, Kim JW, Heo S, Cho HY, Kim CI. Major source of sodium intake of the Korean population at prepared dish level- Based on the KNHANES 2008 & 2009. Korean J. Community Nutr. 16: 473-487 (2011)
  16. Chang MS, Cho SD, Kim GH. Physicochemical and sensory properties of kimchi (Korean pickled cabbage) prepared with various salts. Korean J. Food Preserv. 17: 30-35 (2010)
  17. Yu KW, Suh HJ, Hwang JH. Fermentative properties and immunomodulating activity of low-sodium kimchi supplemented with Acanthopanax senticosus and Glycyrrhizae uralensis extracts. Korean J. Food Nutr. 25: 878-887 (2012)
  18. Kim GR, Park LY, Lee SH. Fermentation and quality characteristics of kimchi prepared using various types of Maesil (Prumus mume Sieb. et Zucc). Korean J. Food Preserv. 17: 214-222 (2010)
  19. You BR, Kim E, Jang JY, Choi HJ, Kim HJ. Quality characteristics of kimchi with Allium hookeri root powder. Korean J. Food Preserv. 20: 863-870 (2013)
  20. Lim JH, Park SS, Jeong WJ, Park KJ, Seo KH, Sung JM. Quality characteristics of kimchi fermented with abalone or sea tangle extracts. J. Korean Soc. Food Sci. Nutr. 42: 450-456 (2013)
  21. Lee SK. Characteristic and intake-state of regional kimchi. Food Nutr. 8: 23-25 (1987)
  22. Song MR, Lee KJ. Salinity and consumption patterns of kimchi and soup stew in Jeonju area. Korean J. Food Cook. Sci. 24: 84- 91 (2008)
  23. Yi JH, Cho Y, Hwang IK. Fermentative characteristics of kimchi prepared by addition of different kinds of minor ingredients. Korean J. Soc. Food Sci. 14: 1-10 (1998)
  24. Kim KH, Cho HS. Physicochemical and microbiological properties of skate (Raja kenojei) kimchi on the market. J. Korean Soc. Food Cult. 23: 235-242 (2008)
  25. Park SH, Lee JH. The correlation of physicochemical characteristics of kimchi with sourness and overall acceptability. Korean J. Food Cook. Sci. 21: 103-109 (2005)
  26. Lee HY, Paik JE, Han YS. Effect of powder-type dried alaska pollack addition on the quality of kimchi. Korean J. Food Cook. Sci. 19: 254-262 (2003)
  27. Park WP, Park KD. Effect of whey calcium on the quality characteristics of kimchi. Korean J. Food Preserv. 11: 34-37 (2004)
  28. Ku KH, Kang KO, Kim WJ. Some quality changes fermentation of kimchi. Korean J. Food Sci. Technol. 23: 476-482 (1998)
  29. Lee HA, Song YO, Jang MS, Han JS. Effect of Ecklonia cava on the quality kimchi during fermentation. J. Korean Soc. Food Sci. Nutr. 42: 83-88 (2013)
  30. Chung DO, Park ID, Kim JO. Quality changes of resemary-onion kimchi by packaging materials during storage. Korean J. Food Sci. Technol. 34: 1043-1047 (2002)
  31. Lee KH, Cho HY, Pyun YR. Kinetic modelling for the prediction of shelf-life of kimchi based on total acidity as a quality index. Korean J. Food Sci. Technol. 23: 306-310 (1991)
  32. Standard for Korean Traditional Food. kimchi, No. T020. Notification of National Agricultural Products Quality Management Service. No. 2012-35 (2012)
  33. Ahn SJ. The effect of salt and food preservatives on the growth of lactic acid bacteria isolated from kimchi. Korean J. Food Soc. Food Sci. 4: 39-50 (1988)
  34. Chang JY, Choi YR, Chang HC. Change in the microvial profiles of commercial kimchi during fermentation. Korean J. Food Preserv. 18: 786-794 (2011)

Cited by

  1. Qualitative Consumer Preference Studies on Korean-style Kimchi in Chinese Living in Korea vol.27, pp.2, 2017,


Supported by : 식품의약품안전처